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Capozzi, F. ; Magkos, F. ; Fava, F. ; Milani, G. P. ; Agostoni, C. ; Astrup, A. ; Saguy, I. A Multidisciplinary Perspective of Ultra-Processed Foods and Associated Food Processing Technologies: A View of the Sustainable Road Ahead. NUTRIENTS 2021, 13.Abstract
Ultra-processed foods (UPFs) are negatively perceived by part of the scientific community, the public, and policymakers alike, to the extent they are sometimes referred to as not ``real food ``. Many observational surveys have linked consumption of UPFs to adverse health outcomes. This narrative synthesis and scientific reappraisal of available evidence aims to: (i) critically evaluate UPF-related scientific literature on diet and disease and identify possible research gaps or biases in the interpretation of data; (ii) emphasize the innovative potential of various processing technologies that can lead to modifications of the food matrix with beneficial health effects; (iii) highlight the possible links between processing, sustainability and circular economy through the valorisation of by-products; and (iv) delineate the conceptual parameters of new paradigms in food evaluation and classification systems. Although greater consumption of UPFs has been associated with obesity, unfavorable cardiometabolic risk factor profiles, and increased risk for non-communicable diseases, whether specific food processing techniques leading to ultra-processed formulations are responsible for the observed links between UPFs and various health outcomes remains elusive and far from being understood. Evolving technologies can be used in the context of sustainable valorisation of food processing by-products to create novel, low-cost UPFs with improved nutritional value and health potential. New paradigms of food evaluation and assessment should be funded and developed on several novel pillars-enginomics, signalling, and precision nutrition-taking advantage of available digital technologies and artificial intelligence. Research is needed to generate required scientific knowledge to either expand the current or create new food evaluation and classification systems, incorporating processing aspects that may have a significant impact on health and wellness, together with factors related to the personalization of foods and diets, while not neglecting recycling and sustainability aspects. The complexity and the predicted immense size of these tasks calls for open innovation mentality and a new mindset promoting multidisciplinary collaborations and partnerships between academia and industry.
Perito, M. A. ; Sacchetti, G. ; Di Mattia, C. D. ; Chiodo, E. ; Pittia, P. ; Saguy, I. ; Cohen, E. Buy Local! Familiarity and Preferences for Extra Virgin Olive Oil of Italian Consumers. Journal of Food Products Marketing 2019, 25, 462-477. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Over the last few years, the origin of the local product has played a central role in consumer choices. This study explores what Italian consumers want and look for when purchasing olive oil by combining a web-based survey and a perceived analysis technique. In particular, preferences for different olive oil attributes as well as the psychographic traits of respondents were revealed through a web-based questionnaire administered to Italian consumers (N = 179). From this questionnaire, respondents who indicated their availability to participate further underwent a preference test under blind conditions (N = 99). Respondents also did an expectation test based on the visual observation of the labels. Results showed that the majority of consumers considered local production, PDO and region as factors of highest importance in determining olive oil quality. © 2019, © 2019 Taylor & Francis.
Saguy, I. ; Roos, Y. H. ; Cohen, E. Food engineering and food science and technology: Forward-looking journey to future new horizons. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 2018, 47, 326-334. Publisher's VersionAbstract
The overall objectives of this study were to assess the status of Food Engineering (FE), Food Science and Technology (FS&T) and related fields using a global web-survey and included: identifying the major challenges and opportunities; and making specific recommendations for future possible paradigm shifts. Respondents from academia, private research institutes, industry, government, consulting and others sectors participated. The most important topics selected were: ‘Innovation/open innovation,’ ‘Broad education and multidisciplinary capabilities,’ ‘Career development & prospects,’ and ‘Applied research.’ Lowest importance were ‘Basic science’ and ‘Salary.’ Highest possible impact on FE and FS&T future curricula were: ‘Food safety, waste reduction/management’ and ‘Environmental impact, food sustainability and security.’ Overwhelming majority (>68%) indicated that FE or FS&T should be integrated with other existing/evolving academic program. Principal component analysis yielded 3-new variables, offering insights on the relationships between geographical education location and sustainability, innovation and employability. The competitive landscape calls for reshaping of the domains vision. Industrial relevance: • Basic research and salary were selected by the respondents to have a very low importance. Enhancing applied research, agility, attractiveness of the field and strengthen research relevance and collaboration with industry are required.• Both government/state and food industry financial support is a clear indication of the significant role they play in the innovation ecosystem collaboration.• Significant difference between North America & Canada and Europe on addressing innovation, soft skills and employability offer new insights on enhancing utilization of innovation, science, technology and impact.• Innovation and open innovation offer FE and FS&T unique new horizons for spearheading change and opportunities to alleviate typical industrial and academic conservativeness and risk aversion. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd
Soon, J. M. ; Saguy, I. Crowdsourcing: A new conceptual view for food safety and quality. Trends in Food Science and Technology 2017, 66, 63-72. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Background Crowdsourcing is a new tool offered mainly over the internet for obtaining ideas, content, funding by seeking contributions from a large group of people and especially from the online community rather than from traditional employees or suppliers. Crowdsourcing is widespread in numerous food applications (e.g., technology, entrepreneurial projects, start-ups funding, innovative product developments). Scope and approach Although the use of crowdsourcing has increased rapidly, there is still much untapped potential in harnessing its vast innovative potential in food quality and safety solutions. This paper aims to review recent utilization of crowdsourcing practices in the food domain. Additionally, to furnish a conceptual view on possible application where crowdsourcing can be harnessed in enhancing food quality, safety and reducing risks. Key findings and conclusions It argues that crowdsourcing initiative is potentially a very useful tool as a part of the big data by utilizing the crowd's data in shelf-life monitoring, inventory control, foodborne illness surveillance, identification of contaminated products and to improve food businesses’ hygiene, enhance food safety, communication and allergen management and minimizing risk. The limitations include the number of reports and data generated may overwhelm the food industry or authority due to lack of internal resources i.e. time and technical expert to process the information. There is also risk of lack of crowd participation and loss of control. Hence, a mechanism to facilitate, evaluate and process the data should be in place. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd
Saguy, I. Challenges and opportunities in food engineering: Modeling, virtualization, open innovation and social responsibility. Journal of Food Engineering 2016, 176, 2-8. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Food engineering should shed its historical mindset, embrace new challenges and opportunities that the 21st century holds. Unabated scientific progress and breakthroughs highlight mounting challenges with some vital paradigm shifts. Four main challenges have been identified: modeling, virtualization, open innovation (OI) and social responsibility (SR). The shift from empirical to physics-based food modeling is paramount to benefit from new sensor technology, proliferation of the 'Internet of Things', and big-data information. An overriding part of modeling continues to be food uniqueness and complexity, consumer needs and expectations, health and wellness, sustainability and SR. Virtualization is to significantly benefit from expanding computational power, dedicated software, cloud computing, big data, and other breakthroughs. Collaboration and partnerships with all innovation ecosystem stakeholders are paramount. Academia's role as a 'startup university' requires revising its intellectual property models, curricula rejuvenating, OI, creativity, employability and SR. Food engineers are at a verge of a very prosperous future. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Saguy, I. ; Cohen, E. Food engineering: Attitudes and future outlook. Journal of Food Engineering 2016, 178, 71-80. Publisher's VersionAbstract
A global web survey was conducted collecting academia and industry perceived attitudes, identifying curriculum gaps, challenges and opportunities of food engineering (FE). Participation criterion was: "A person who has one or more formal degrees in FE, and/or an equivalent degree in another field and whose job description includes/included FE activities". Respondents with formal FE education was lower than 25%. More than two-thirds of the respondents holding a formal BSc or MSc in FE selected other domains for their higher degrees, and 56.7% indicated that FE should become a part of another study program. Traditional FE topics were preferred over health, nutrition and wellbeing, innovation related to firm's activities, marketing molecular biology. FE profession should undergo a self-examination required to ensure its future growth and impact in addressing forthcoming challenges in the food sector, and concurrently make paradigm shifts in its vision in the pursuit of excellence and innovation. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Saguy, I. ; Sirotinskaya, V. Open Innovation Opportunities Focusing on Food SMEs; Innovation Strategies in the Food Industry: Tools for Implementation; 2016; pp. 41-59. Publisher's VersionAbstract
The food industry, especially small and medium enterprises (SMEs), is facing increasingly complex challenges, more regulation, as well as fierce local and global competition. Open innovation (OI) can enhance innovation options by accessing external assets and collaborations with unique opportunities, facilitating partnerships, and alleviating hurdles such as limited resources, R&D expertise, skills, etc. Highlighted topics include: adapting OI for the food industry's special needs, with a focus on SMEs' unique challenges, and the roles of academia and intellectual property. Examples provided depict SMEs with typical OI utilization and the steps required to initiate and develop new concepts. Specific recommendations include: collaboration, creation of a four-helix innovation ecosystem (industry, academia, government, and private sector), metrics to quantify academia's social responsibility, and revised curricula promoting OI to encourage SMEs involvement. OI presents a unique opportunity for all stakeholders, especially for SMEs, to proactively engage in meeting future challenges and opportunities. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.