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Head of Institute: Prof. Oren Froy

Administrative manager: Ms. Yael Fruchter

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Institute of Biochemistry, Food Science and Nutrition,
Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment,
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 
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Publications

2018
Hatting, M. ; Tavares, C. D. J. ; Sharabi, K. ; Rines, A. K. ; Puigserver, P. Insulin regulation of gluconeogenesis. Annals of the New York Academy of SciencesAnnals of the New York Academy of SciencesAnn. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 2018, 1411, 21 - 35. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Abstract The coordinated regulation between cellular glucose uptake and endogenous glucose production is indispensable for the maintenance of constant blood glucose concentrations. The liver contributes significantly to this process by altering the levels of hepatic glucose release, through controlling the processes of de novo glucose production (gluconeogenesis) and glycogen breakdown (glycogenolysis). Various nutritional and hormonal stimuli signal to alter hepatic gluconeogenic flux, and suppression of this metabolic pathway during the postprandial state can, to a significant extent, be attributed to insulin. Here, we review some of the molecular mechanisms through which insulin modulates hepatic gluconeogenesis, thus controlling glucose production by the liver to ultimately maintain normoglycemia. Various signaling pathways governed by insulin converge at the level of transcriptional regulation of the key hepatic gluconeogenic genes PCK1 and G6PC, highlighting this as one of the focal mechanisms through which gluconeogenesis is modulated. In individuals with compromised insulin signaling, such as insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes, insulin fails to suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis, even in the fed state; hence, an insight into these insulin-moderated pathways is critical for therapeutic purposes.
Broide, E. ; Reifen, R. ; Matalon, S. ; Berkovich, Z. ; Shirin, H. Expression of duodenal iron transporter proteins in diabetic patients with and without iron deficiency anemia. Journal of Diabetes Research 2018, 2018. Publisher's VersionAbstract
The role of iron transport proteins in the pathogenesis of anemia in patients with diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is still unclear. We investigated the expression of duodenal transporter proteins in diabetic patients with and without iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Methods. Overall, 39 patients were included: 16 with T2DM and IDA (group A), 11 with T2DM without IDA (group B), and 12 controls (group C). Duodenal mucosal expression of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), ferroportin 1 (FPN), hephaestin (HEPH), and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR) was evaluated by Western blotting. Chronic disease activity markers were measured as well. Results. FPN expression was increased in group A compared to group B and controls: 1.17 (0.72-1.46), 0.76 (0.53-1.04), and 0.71 (0.64-0.86), respectively (p = 0 011). TfR levels were over expressed in groups A and B compared to controls: 0.39 (0.26-0.61), 0.36 (0.24-0.43), and 0.18 (0.16-0.24), respectively, (p = 0 004). The three groups did not differ significantly with regard to cellular HEPH and DMT1 expression. The normal CRP and serum ferritin levels, accompanied with normal FPN among diabetic patients without IDA, do not support the association of IDA with chronic inflammatory state. Conclusion. In patients with T2DM and IDA, duodenal iron transport protein expression might be dependent on body iron stores rather than by chronic inflammation or diabetes per se. Copyright © 2018 Efrat Broide et al.
Saguy, I. ; Roos, Y. H. ; Cohen, E. Food engineering and food science and technology: Forward-looking journey to future new horizons. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 2018, 47, 326-334. Publisher's VersionAbstract
The overall objectives of this study were to assess the status of Food Engineering (FE), Food Science and Technology (FS&T) and related fields using a global web-survey and included: identifying the major challenges and opportunities; and making specific recommendations for future possible paradigm shifts. Respondents from academia, private research institutes, industry, government, consulting and others sectors participated. The most important topics selected were: ‘Innovation/open innovation,’ ‘Broad education and multidisciplinary capabilities,’ ‘Career development & prospects,’ and ‘Applied research.’ Lowest importance were ‘Basic science’ and ‘Salary.’ Highest possible impact on FE and FS&T future curricula were: ‘Food safety, waste reduction/management’ and ‘Environmental impact, food sustainability and security.’ Overwhelming majority (>68%) indicated that FE or FS&T should be integrated with other existing/evolving academic program. Principal component analysis yielded 3-new variables, offering insights on the relationships between geographical education location and sustainability, innovation and employability. The competitive landscape calls for reshaping of the domains vision. Industrial relevance: • Basic research and salary were selected by the respondents to have a very low importance. Enhancing applied research, agility, attractiveness of the field and strengthen research relevance and collaboration with industry are required.• Both government/state and food industry financial support is a clear indication of the significant role they play in the innovation ecosystem collaboration.• Significant difference between North America & Canada and Europe on addressing innovation, soft skills and employability offer new insights on enhancing utilization of innovation, science, technology and impact.• Innovation and open innovation offer FE and FS&T unique new horizons for spearheading change and opportunities to alleviate typical industrial and academic conservativeness and risk aversion. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd
Sason, G. ; Nussinovitch, A. Characterization of κ-carrageenan gels immersed in ethanol solutions. Food Hydrocolloids 2018, 79, 136-144. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Studying the influence of water–ethanol mixtures on the properties of κ-carrageenan gels could serve as a tool for the development of innovative semi-solid alcohol-containing food products. The changes in κ-carrageenan gels upon immersion in solutions with various concentrations of ethanol were characterized. κ-Carrageenan gels immersed in high ethanol concentrations lost considerable weight. At lower ethanol concentrations (50%–70%), weight loss was only moderate. However, at ethanol concentrations lower than 50%, the gels swelled and gained weight. The swelling/deswelling of κ-carrageenan gels immersed in ethanol solutions was dependent on their hydrocolloid concentration. All gels became stronger with increasing concentration of ethanol in the surrounding solvent. This change in gel strength following immersion did not stem solely from the changes in hydrocolloid concentration upon swelling/deswelling. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy of the gels revealed microstructures consistent with the observed mechanical properties. The residual potassium concentration in gels immersed in the various ethanol solutions was found to be lower than that required for gelation, constituting possible evidence of changed interactions upon immersion. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd
Bilkis, I. ; Silman, I. ; Weiner, L. Generation of reactive oxygen species by photosensitizers and their modes of action on proteins. Current Medicinal Chemistry 2018, 25, 5528-5539. Publisher's VersionAbstract
In this review, we first survey the mechanisms underlying the chemical modification of amino acid residues in proteins by singlet oxygen elicited by photosensitizers. Singlet oxygen has the capacity to cause widespread chemical damage to cellular proteins. Its use in photodynamic therapy of tumors thus requires the development of methodologies for specific addressing of the photosensitizer to malignant cells while sparing normal tissue. We describe three targeting paradigms for achieving this objective. The first involves the use of a photosensitizer with a high affinity for its target protein; in this case, the photosensitizer is methylene blue for acetylcholinesterase. The second paradigm involves the use of the hydrophobic photosensitizer hypericin, which has the capacity to interact selectively with partially unfolded forms of proteins, including nascent species in rapidly dividing or virus-infected and cancer cells, acting preferentially at membrane interfaces. In this case, partially unfolded molten globule species of acetylcholinesterase serve as the model system. In the third paradigm, the photodynamic approach takes advantage of a general approach in ‘state-of-the-art’ chemotherapy, by coupling the photosensitizer emodin to a specific peptide hormone, GnRH, which recognizes malignant cells via specific GnRH receptors on their surface. © 2018 Bentham Science Publishers.
Polyakov, N. ; Leshina, T. ; Fedenok, L. ; Slepneva, I. ; Kirilyuk, I. ; Furso, J. ; Olchawa, M. ; Sarna, T. ; Elas, M. ; Bilkis, I. ; et al. Redox-Active Quinone Chelators: Properties, Mechanisms of Action, Cell Delivery, and Cell Toxicity. Antioxidants and Redox Signaling 2018, 28, 1394-1403. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Significance: Chemotherapy is currently the principal method for treating many malignancies. Thus, the development of improved antitumor drugs with enhanced efficacy and selectivity remains a high priority. Recent Advances: Anthracycline antibiotics (AAs), for example, doxorubicin, daunomycin, and mitomycin C, belong to an important family of antitumor agents widely used in chemotherapy. These compounds are all quinones. They are, thus, capable of being reduced by appropriate chemicals or reductases. One of their important properties is that under aerobic conditions their reduced forms undergo oxidation, with concomitant generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), namely, superoxide anion radicals, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals. The presence of metal ions is essential for the generation of ROS by AAs in biological systems. Critical Issues: A fundamental shortcoming of the AAs is their high cardiotoxicity. We have proposed, and experimentally realized, a new type of quinones that is capable of coordinating metal ions. We have demonstrated in vitro that they can be reduced by electron transfer chains and glutathione with concomitant generation of ROS. They can also produce ROS under photo-excitation. The mechanisms of these reactions have been characterized by using nuclear magnetic resonance and electron paramagnetic resonance. Future Directions: To enhance their therapeutic effectiveness, and decrease cardiotoxicity and other side effects, we intend to conjugate the quinone chelators with monoclonal antibodies and peptide hormones that are specifically targeted to receptors on the cancer cell surface. Some such candidates have already been synthesized. An alternative approach for delivery of our compounds involves the use of specific peptide-based nanoparticles. In addition, our novel approach for treating malignancies is also suitable for photodynamic therapy. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 1394-1403. © 2018, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Bein, A. ; Eventov-Friedman, S. ; Arbell, D. ; Schwartz, B. Intestinal tight junctions are severely altered in NEC preterm neonates. Pediatr Neonatol 2018, 59, 464-473.Abstract
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) is a severe inflammatory disorder of the intestine endangering the health and survival of preterm infants. It is well established that the gut barrier is severely damaged in NEC patients, nonetheless an in depth investigation of modifications at the transcriptional and translational levels of tight junction genes and proteins during NEC are still missing. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the expression of tight junctions and other associated proteins during NEC and determine their correlation to the disease severity. METHODS: We examined intestinal specimens from six NEC patients and compared them with six control specimens from patients that underwent surgeries for reasons other than NEC. The expression of genes was analyzed by real time PCR and protein expression by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The tight junction genes ZO-1, occludin, cingulin and claudin-4 were significantly down regulated in NEC. Furthermore TLR4, BAX and SIRT1 genes were found to be significantly down regulated while HIF-1A showed a trend of up regulation in NEC patients. These changes were found to correlate with the severity of the disease. Additionally we demonstrated in an ex-vivo model that hypoxic conditions initiated a destructive process of the epithelial barrier. We also showed that the expression of the tight junction proteins ZO-1 and occludin were significantly down regulated in NEC specimens. CONCLUSIONS: The expression of tight junction proteins and their encoding genes are significantly altered in NEC. We surmise that SIRT1 and HIF-1A may play a role in controlling these effects.
Vetvicka, V. ; Gover, O. ; Hayby, H. ; Danay, O. ; Ezov, N. ; Hadar, Y. ; Schwartz, B. Spatial Distribution of Glucan Type and Content between Caps and Stalks in Pleurotus eryngii: Impact on the Anti-inflammatory Functionality. International journal of molecular sciences 2018, 19, 3371. Publisher's VersionAbstract
: Pleurotus eryngii is recognized for its prominent nutritional and medicinal value. In our study, we tested the effect of glucans on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of TNF-α. We demonstrated that glucan extracts are more effective than mill mushroom preparations. Additionally, the effectiveness of stalk-derived glucans were slightly more pronounced than of caps. Cap and stalk glucans from mill or isolated glucan competed dose-dependently with anti-Dectin-and anti-CR-3 antibodies, indicating that they contain β-glucans recognized by these receptors. Using the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-inflammatory bowel disease mice model, intestinal inflammatory response to the mill preparations was measured and compared to extracted glucan fractions from caps and stalks. We found that mill and glucan extracts were very effective in downregulating IFN-γ and MIP-2 levels and that stalk-derived preparations were more effective than from caps. The tested glucans were equally effective in regulating the number of CD14/CD16 monocytes and upregulating the levels of fecal-released IgA to almost normal levels. In conclusion, the most effective glucans in ameliorating some IBD-inflammatory associated symptoms induced by DSS treatment in mice were glucan extracts prepared from the stalk of P. eryngii. These spatial distinctions may be helpful in selecting more effective specific anti-inflammatory mushrooms-derived glucans.
Yahav, S. ; Berkovich, Z. ; Ostrov, I. ; Reifen, R. ; Shemesh, M. Encapsulation of beneficial probiotic bacteria in extracellular matrix from biofilm-forming Bacillus subtilis. Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology 2018, 46, 974-982. Publisher's VersionAbstract
AbstractProbiotics, live microbial supplements, are often incorporated into foods and beverages to provide putative health benefits. To ensure their beneficial effects, these organisms must survive processing and storage of food, its passage through the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and subsequent chemical ingestion processes until they reach their target organ. However, there is considerable loss of viability of probiotic bacteria in the acidic conditions of the stomach and the high bile concentration in the small intestine. Bacillus subtilis, a spore-forming non-pathogenic bacterium, recently has gained interest in its probiotic properties; it can effectively maintain a favorable balance of microflora in the GIT. In addition, B. subtilis produces an extracellular matrix that protects it from stressful environments. We suggested that the extracellular matrix produced by B. subtilis could protect other probiotic bacteria and therefore potentially could be used as a vehicle for delivering viable probiotic cells to humans. Therefore, we developed a novel cultivation system that enables co-culturing of B. subtilis along with probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) by increasing production of the extracellular matrix by B. subtilis cells. Moreover, we showed that B. subtilis improved survivability of LAB during food preparation, storage and ingestion. Therefore, we believe that the results of our study will provide a novel technique of using a natural system for preservation and delivery of probiotics to humans.
Bahia, M. S. ; Nissim, I. ; Niv, M. Y. Bitterness prediction in-silico: A step towards better drugs. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 2018, 536, 526 - 529. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Bitter taste is innately aversive and thought to protect against consuming poisons. Bitter taste receptors (Tas2Rs) are G-protein coupled receptors, expressed both orally and extra-orally and proposed as novel targets for several indications, including asthma. Many clinical drugs elicit bitter taste, suggesting the possibility of drugs re-purposing. On the other hand, the bitter taste of medicine presents a major compliance problem for pediatric drugs. Thus, efficient tools for predicting, measuring and masking bitterness of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are required by the pharmaceutical industry. Here we highlight the BitterDB database of bitter compounds and survey the main computational approaches to prediction of bitter taste based on compound's chemical structure. Current in silico bitterness prediction methods provide encouraging results, can be constantly improved using growing experimental data, and present a reliable and efficient addition to the APIs development toolbox.
Cohen-Goldental, S. ; Biton, I. ; Zemach, H. ; Many, Y. ; Tonutti, P. ; Kerem, Z. ; Ben-Ari, G. Fruitlet abscission in olive (Olea europaea L.). In Acta Horticulturae; Acta Horticulturae; International Society for Horticultural Science (ISHS), Leuven, Belgium, 2018; pp. 215 - 220. Publisher's Version
Dag, A. ; Erel, R. ; Kerem, Z. ; Ben-Gal, A. ; Stern, N. ; Bustan, A. ; Zipori, I. ; Yermiyahu, U. Effect of nitrogen availability on olive oil quality. In Acta Horticulturae; Acta Horticulturae; International Society for Horticultural Science (ISHS), Leuven, Belgium, 2018; pp. 465 - 470. Publisher's Version
van-Oss, R. P. ; Gopher, A. ; Kerem, Z. ; Peleg, Z. ; Lev-Yadun, S. ; Sherman, A. ; Zhang, H. - B. ; Vandemark, G. ; Coyne, C. J. ; Reany, O. ; et al. Independent selection for seed free tryptophan content and vernalization response in chickpea domestication. Plant Breeding 2018, 137, 290-300. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Abstract Chickpea shows a distinct domestication trajectory vis-a-vis pod dehiscence and growth cycle mediated by vernalization insensitivity compared with its companion Near Eastern legumes. Our objectives were: (i) to map the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with vernalization response and seed free tryptophan in domesticated × wild chickpea progeny and (ii) estimate the genetic correlation between vernalization response and free tryptophan content. A domesticated × wild chickpea cross was used to document phenotypic segregation in both traits and to construct a skeletal genetic map for QTL detection. A number of vernalization response and seed free tryptophan content QTLs were documented in both F2 and F3 generations. No significant genetic correlation between these two traits was observed. Epistatic relationship between two free tryptophan loci was documented. It is evident that selection for high seed tryptophan is easier to accomplish relative to selection for vernalization insensitivity. This suggests that the two traits were selected independently in antiquity, thereby corroborating earlier claims for conscious selection processes associated with chickpea domestication.
Ocłoń, E. ; Solomon, G. ; Hrabia, A. ; Druyan, S. ; Hayouka, Z. ; Gertler, A. New reagents for poultry research: preparation, purification, and in vitro evaluation of non-PEGylated and mono-PEGylated chicken prolactin. Poultry Science 2018, 97, 3277 - 3285. Publisher's VersionAbstract
ABSTRACT Recombinant chicken prolactin (chPRL), expressed in Escherichia coli and purified as a monomer, was successfully PEGylated and purified to homogeneity as a mono-PEGylated protein (PEG-chPRL). Its biological activity was estimated by its ability to interact with human prolactin receptor extracellular domain (hPRLR-ECD) and stimulate PRLR-mediated proliferation in Nb2-11C cells. PEG-chPRL activity in a cell bioassay was 10-fold lower than that of non-PEGylated chPRL, but only 2-fold lower in a binding assay to hPRLR-ECD. The CD spectra of non-PEGylated and PEGylated chPRL were almost identical and similar to that of hPRL, indicating proper refolding. Although the PEGylation of chPRL resulted in lower activity in vitro, PEG-chPRL was absorbed more slowly than chPRL, remained in the circulation 16 h longer. Furthermore the effects of PEG-chPRL injections in chickens on subsequent corticosteroid levels in blood were significantly profound compared to chPRL. These favorable PEGylation-induced pharmacokinetic alterations should improve efficacy of PEG-chPRL in in vivo experiments, as dosing frequency can be reduced due to its prolonged persistence in the circulation, and thus reduce the frequency of dosing. Furthermore, hydrophobic interaction chromatography was successfully adopted to isolate PEG-chPRL as a better alternative for separation of PEGylated PRL, and is likely to be successfully applicable to other proteins.
Shpaizer, A. ; Nussinovitch, A. ; Kanner, J. ; Tirosh, O. S-Nitroso-N-acetylcysteine Generates Less Carcinogenic N-Nitrosamines in Meat Products than Nitrite. J Agric Food Chem 2018, 66, 11459-11467.Abstract
Nitrite reacts with secondary amines to form N-nitrosamines (N-NA), which lead to gastrointestinal cancers. The aim of this study was to compare nitrite with S-nitrosocysteine (Cys-SNO) and S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine (NAC-SNO) with respect to N-NA formation, which was evaluated by determining the conversion of N-methylaniline to N-nitrosomethylaniline. Under neutral and acidic pH conditions, N-NA formation rate was nitrite > Cys-SNO > NAC-SNO. In the presence of copper or nucleophiles, NAC-SNO generated much less N-NA than Cys-SNO. Nitrite and Cys-SNO produced higher amounts of N-NA in the presence of oxygen, whereas NAC-SNO was almost oxygen insensitive. In meat in the stomach medium, NAC-SNO produced much lower amounts of N-NA than other additives. In heated meat, Cys-SNO and NAC-SNO generated the nitrosyl-hemochrome pink pigment, better than nitrite. In conclusion, NAC-SNO was much less reactive for N-NA formation than nitrite and Cys-SNO in conditions relevant to meat production and stomach digestion.
Tirosh, O. Hypoxic Signaling and Cholesterol Lipotoxicity in Fatty Liver Disease Progression. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2018, 2018, 2548154.Abstract
Cholesterol is the only lipid whose absorption in the gastrointestinal tract is limited by gate-keeping transporters and efflux mechanisms, preventing its rapid absorption and accumulation in the liver and blood vessels. In this review, I explored the current data regarding cholesterol accumulation in liver cells and key mechanisms in cholesterol-induced fatty liver disease associated with the activation of deleterious hypoxic and nitric oxide signal transduction pathways. Although nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects both obese and nonobese individuals, the mechanism of NAFLD progression in lean individuals with healthy metabolism is puzzling. Lean NAFLD individuals exhibit normal metabolic responses, implying that liver damage is not associated with impaired metabolism per se and that direct lipotoxic effects are crucial for disease progression. Several redox and oxidant signaling pathways involving cholesterol are at play in fatty liver disease development. These include impairment of the mitochondrial and lysosomal function by cholesterol loading of the inner-cell membranes; formation of cholesterol crystals and hepatocyte degradation; and crown-like structures surrounding degrading hepatocytes, activating Kupffer cells, and evoking inflammation. The current review focuses on the induction of liver inflammation, fibrosis, and steatosis by free cholesterol via the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), a main oxygen-sensing transcription factor involved in all stages of NAFLD. Cholesterol loading in hepatocytes can result in chronic HIF-1 activity because of the decreased oxygen availability and excessive production of nitric oxide and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species.
Shtriker, M. G. ; Peri, I. ; Taieb, E. ; Nyska, A. ; Tirosh, O. ; Madar, Z. Galactomannan More than Pectin Exacerbates Liver Injury in Mice Fed with High-Fat, High-Cholesterol Diet. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 2018, 62, 1800331. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Scope Galactomannan and citrus pectin are considered ?super fibers? known for altering gut microbiota composition and improving glucose and lipid metabolism. The study aims to investigate the fiber's effect on a nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) model. Methods and results Two feeding experiments are carried out using groups of 7?8 week-old male C57BL/6J mice. The diets used are based on a high cholesterol/cholate diet (HCD), such as a nutritional NASH model. Mice are fed a diet with or without 15% fiber-citrus pectin (HCD-CP) or galactomannan (HCD-G) together with the HCD (first experiment), which commenced 3 weeks prior to the HCD (second experiment). Liver damage is evaluated by histological and biochemical parameters. Galactomannan leads to lesser weight gain and improved glucose tolerance, but increased liver damage. This is shown by elevated levels of liver enzymes compared to that with HCD alone. Fibers induce higher steatosis, as evaluated by liver histology. This intriguing result is linked to various changes in the gut microbiota, such as elevated Proteobacteria levels in the galactomannan group, which are correlated with disturbed metabolism and dysbiosis. Conclusions In a NASH mouse model, galactomannan increases liver damage but improves glucose metabolism. Changes in the microbiota composition may answer this enigmatic observation.
Ovadia, Y. ; Chris Sabastian, C. ; Dahl, L. ; Troen, A. M. ; Mabjeesh, S. The Effect of Iodophor Post-Milking Teat Disinfection on Iodine Content in Goat Milk. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine 2018, 73, 14 - 22.
Ovadia, Y. S. ; Gefel, D. ; Weizmann, N. ; Raizman, M. ; Goldsmith, R. ; Mabjeesh, S. ; Dahl, L. ; Troen, A. M. Low Iodine Intake from Dairy Foods Despite High Milk Iodine Content in Israel. Thyroid 2018, 28, 1042 - 1051. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Background: Milk is a major source of iodine in human nutrition. Because both iodine content and the consumption of milk and dairy vary widely over time and populations, their contribution to iodine intake must be evaluated regularly. A recent national iodine survey found Israel's population to be mildly iodine deficient, possibly due to unmonitored changes in the food content of dietary iodine. Accounting for dairy iodine content can help guide efforts to prevent iodine deficiency. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the iodine concentration of dairy products typically consumed in the Israeli diet, and to estimate iodine intake from dairy products among Israeli adults. Methods: Iodine was analyzed in 33 selected dairy products that account for 89% of the total population's dairy intake according to the ?MABAT? Israeli National Health and Nutrition survey. Based on these data, the distribution of iodine intake from milk, dairy, and dairy-based foods in the adult population was calculated. Results: Israeli milk is rich in iodine, with a mean concentration of 22??g/100?g. However, due to low dairy consumption, the mean iodine intake from milk and dairy was only 34??g/day (median 23??g/day; range: 0?337??g/day) or 22% of the recommended daily allowance. Self-reported intake among poor, male, and Arab subgroups was even lower. Conclusions: Because Israeli milk and dairy products are iodine rich, their contribution to the population's iodine intake would increase if they were consumed in greater amounts, particularly by high-risk groups. Dairy's potential contribution to iodine nutrition should be considered in recommendations for dairy consumption and iodine prophylaxis.Background: Milk is a major source of iodine in human nutrition. Because both iodine content and the consumption of milk and dairy vary widely over time and populations, their contribution to iodine intake must be evaluated regularly. A recent national iodine survey found Israel's population to be mildly iodine deficient, possibly due to unmonitored changes in the food content of dietary iodine. Accounting for dairy iodine content can help guide efforts to prevent iodine deficiency. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the iodine concentration of dairy products typically consumed in the Israeli diet, and to estimate iodine intake from dairy products among Israeli adults. Methods: Iodine was analyzed in 33 selected dairy products that account for 89% of the total population's dairy intake according to the ?MABAT? Israeli National Health and Nutrition survey. Based on these data, the distribution of iodine intake from milk, dairy, and dairy-based foods in the adult population was calculated. Results: Israeli milk is rich in iodine, with a mean concentration of 22??g/100?g. However, due to low dairy consumption, the mean iodine intake from milk and dairy was only 34??g/day (median 23??g/day; range: 0?337??g/day) or 22% of the recommended daily allowance. Self-reported intake among poor, male, and Arab subgroups was even lower. Conclusions: Because Israeli milk and dairy products are iodine rich, their contribution to the population's iodine intake would increase if they were consumed in greater amounts, particularly by high-risk groups. Dairy's potential contribution to iodine nutrition should be considered in recommendations for dairy consumption and iodine prophylaxis.
Efrati Philip, D. ; Baransi, G. ; Shahar, D. R. ; Troen, A. M. Food-Aid Quality Correlates Positively With Diet Quality of Food Pantry Users in the Leket Israel Food Bank Collaborative. Frontiers in Nutrition 2018, 5 123. Publisher's VersionAbstract
{Introduction: In many affluent countries, including Israel, networks of food banks and pantries have increasing responsibility to alleviate endemic poverty and food insecurity. While they may relieve acute hunger, their long-term influence on health and well-being is poorly understood. Methods: An exploratory cross-sectional telephone survey assessed both adequacy and quality of food aid provided via food pantries in the Leket Israel food bank network, in relation to recipients’ dietary needs and health. The quality of food baskets and recipient diets were given a Healthy Portions Score (HPS) to measure compliance with Government guidelines for a “Basic Healthy Food Basket”, and a Nutrient Density Score (NDS) to capture how well the food achieved the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for vital macro and micronutrients. A total of 105 pantry users were surveyed from 16 pantries around the country. Results: The basket HPS correlated positively and highly significantly with dietary quality (individual NDS) after adjusting for gender, marital status and country of birth (standardized β= 0.22