Pegylated Human Leptin D23L Mutant - Preparation and biological activity in vitro and in vivo in male ob /ob mice
. Endocrinology 2019
, 891-898. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Recombinant monomeric human leptin (hLEP) and its D23L mutant were prepared in Escherichia coli and pegylated at their N-terminus using 20-kDa methoxy pegylated (PEG)-propionylaldehyde. As determined by both SDS-PAGE and size-exclusion chromatography, the pegylated proteins consisted of >90% monopegylated and <10% double-pegylated species. Circular dichroism spectra showed that their secondary structure, characteristic of all four α-helix bundle cytokines, was not affected by either the D23L mutation or pegylation. Because of the D23L mutation, affinity for hLEP receptor increased 25- and 40-fold for the pegylated and nonpegylated mutant, respectively. However, whereas the proliferation-promoting activity in vitro of nonmutated and mutated nonpegylated hLEP was identical, that of the respective pegylated mutant was approximately sixfold higher compared with the pegylated nonmutated hLEP. This difference was also seen in vivo. Both pegylated hLEPs at all doses significantly decreased body weight and food consumption, as compared with the vehicle-treated control. Once-daily administration of pegylated hLEP D23L at doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg/kg for 14 consecutive days in ob/ob mice resulted in significantly decreased body weight and food consumption as compared with respective pegylated hLEP-treated animals, with the biggest difference observed at 0.1 mg/kg. Repeated administration of either pegylated hLEP D23L or pegylated hLEP significantly decreased blood glucose levels compared with the control before glucose challenge and after oral glucose tolerance test, but with no difference between the two treatments. The pegylated hLEP D23L mutant seems to be a more potent reagent suitable for in vivo studies than the pegylated nonmutated hLEP. © Copyright 2019 Endocrine Society.
Technical note: Effects of pegylation and route of administration on leptin kinetics in newborn lambs
. Journal of Animal Science 2019
, 3768-3775. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Chronic energy insufficiency resulting from inadequate feed intake or increased nutrient demand reduces plasma leptin in ruminants. Treatment of energy-deficient ruminants with exogenous leptin has identified some physiological consequences of reduced plasma leptin, but their full complement remains unknown. Additional leptin-dependent responses could be identified by using strategies that interfere with leptin signaling such as administration of leptin mutants that act as competitive antagonists. The effectiveness of these antagonists depends on their fold excess over endogenous leptin, and this condition can be achieved under in vivo conditions by extending the half-life (t1/2) of the antagonist by addition of a polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecule (pegylation). Use of this approach in ruminants, however, is limited by the lack of information on the t1/2 of native and pegylated leptin and on the most effective route of administration. To answer these questions, newborn lambs (n = 3) were injected with an intravenous (i.v.) bolus of 150 µg of human leptin followed by blood sampling over the next 12 h. Analysis of the semilog plasma leptin concentration over time yielded a t1/2 of 43 ± 4.9 min; an i.v. bolus of 276 µg of bovine leptin yielded a comparable t1/2 (P > 0.05). Next, newborn lambs (n = 4) received a single dose of 229 μg/ kg of metabolic body weight (BW0.75) of pegylated super human leptin antagonist (PEG-SHLA) via the i.v. or subcutaneous (s.c.) route. Plasma PEG-SHLA concentration reached a peak of 1,528 ± 78 ng/mL after 1 min and a nadir of 71 ± 9 ng/mL after 24 h with the i.v. route versus a peak of 423 ± 43 ng/mL after 300 min and a nadir of 146 ± 22 ng/mL after 24 h for the s.c. route; the t1/2 of PEG-SHLA was 394 ± 29 min for the i.v. route and 433 ± 58 min for the s.c. route. Finally, plasma concentration of PEG-SHLA was modeled when given either i.v. or s.c. at a dose of 229 μg/kg BW0.75 every 12 h. Once a steady state was reached, peak and lowest concentrations PEG-SHLA over the 12-h windows were 2,269 and 403 ng/mL for the i.v. route and 814 and 555 ng/mL for the s.c. route. Weighted PEG-SHLA concentrations over the 12-h period were 1,455 and 713 ng/mL for the i.v. and s.c. route, translating into 364- and 178-fold excess over endogenous plasma leptin. These data confirm the effectiveness of pegylation in extending the t1/2 of leptin antagonists in newborn lambs and in increasing their circulation in fold excess over endogenous leptin. © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.