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Achmon, Y. ; Dowdy, F. R. ; Simmons, C. W. ; Zohar-Perez, C. ; Rabinovitz, Z. ; Nussinovitch, A. Degradation and bioavailability of dried alginate hydrocolloid capsules in simulated soil system. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 2019, 136. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Hydrocolloid capsules are common chemical carriers used in many types of applications in foods, biotechnology, and agriculture. Alginate microbeads and macrobeads are some of the more prevalent types of hydrocolloid capsules. Most studies to date have focused on alginate carrier applications but only a few have looked at their bioavailability after use. In this study, alginate carriers were subjected to simulated field conditions and their biodegradation in the soil was evaluated by respiration measurements, visualization, and volatile solids reduction. Using respiration rate, the degradation rate was calculated at 32 ± 3.1% (w/w) after 2 months. The visually estimated volume and volatile solids reduction gave degradation rates of 40 ± 8.6% (v/v) and 22.5 ± 2.5% (w/w), respectively. Moreover, water-loss calculations suggested that the carriers can serve as a stand-alone soil amendment for water retention. These findings emphasize the importance of studying hydrocolloid bioavailability in the soil and alginate carrier suitability for future applications. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2019, 136, 48142. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sason, G. ; Nussinovitch, A. Characterization of κ-carrageenan gels immersed in ethanol solutions. Food Hydrocolloids 2018, 79, 136-144. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Studying the influence of water–ethanol mixtures on the properties of κ-carrageenan gels could serve as a tool for the development of innovative semi-solid alcohol-containing food products. The changes in κ-carrageenan gels upon immersion in solutions with various concentrations of ethanol were characterized. κ-Carrageenan gels immersed in high ethanol concentrations lost considerable weight. At lower ethanol concentrations (50%–70%), weight loss was only moderate. However, at ethanol concentrations lower than 50%, the gels swelled and gained weight. The swelling/deswelling of κ-carrageenan gels immersed in ethanol solutions was dependent on their hydrocolloid concentration. All gels became stronger with increasing concentration of ethanol in the surrounding solvent. This change in gel strength following immersion did not stem solely from the changes in hydrocolloid concentration upon swelling/deswelling. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy of the gels revealed microstructures consistent with the observed mechanical properties. The residual potassium concentration in gels immersed in the various ethanol solutions was found to be lower than that required for gelation, constituting possible evidence of changed interactions upon immersion. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd
Shpaizer, A. ; Nussinovitch, A. ; Kanner, J. ; Tirosh, O. S-Nitroso-N-acetylcysteine Generates Less Carcinogenic N-Nitrosamines in Meat Products than Nitrite. J Agric Food Chem 2018, 66, 11459-11467.Abstract
Nitrite reacts with secondary amines to form N-nitrosamines (N-NA), which lead to gastrointestinal cancers. The aim of this study was to compare nitrite with S-nitrosocysteine (Cys-SNO) and S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine (NAC-SNO) with respect to N-NA formation, which was evaluated by determining the conversion of N-methylaniline to N-nitrosomethylaniline. Under neutral and acidic pH conditions, N-NA formation rate was nitrite > Cys-SNO > NAC-SNO. In the presence of copper or nucleophiles, NAC-SNO generated much less N-NA than Cys-SNO. Nitrite and Cys-SNO produced higher amounts of N-NA in the presence of oxygen, whereas NAC-SNO was almost oxygen insensitive. In meat in the stomach medium, NAC-SNO produced much lower amounts of N-NA than other additives. In heated meat, Cys-SNO and NAC-SNO generated the nitrosyl-hemochrome pink pigment, better than nitrite. In conclusion, NAC-SNO was much less reactive for N-NA formation than nitrite and Cys-SNO in conditions relevant to meat production and stomach digestion.
Belkin, S. ; Yagur-Kroll, S. ; Kabessa, Y. ; Korouma, V. ; Septon, T. ; Anati, Y. ; Zohar-Perez, C. ; Rabinovitz, Z. ; Nussinovitch, A. ; Agranat, A. J. Remote detection of buried landmines using a bacterial sensor. Nature Biotechnology 2017, 35, 308-310. Publisher's Version