Dynamic enhancer function in the chromatin context
. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Syst Biol Med 2018
Enhancers serve as critical regulatory elements in higher eukaryotic cells. The characterization of enhancer function has evolved primarily from genome-wide methodologies, including chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-seq), DNase-I hypersensitivity (DNase-seq), digital genomic footprinting (DGF), and the chromosome conformation capture techniques (3C, 4C, and Hi-C). These population-based assays average signals across millions of cells and lead to enhancer models characterized by static and sequential binding. More recently, fluorescent microscopy techniques, including fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, and single molecule tracking (SMT), reveal a highly dynamic binding behavior for these factors in live cells. Furthermore, a refined analysis of genomic footprinting suggests that many transcription factors leave minimal or no footprints in chromatin, even when present and active in a given cell type. In this study, we review the implications of these new approaches for an accurate understanding of enhancer function in real time. In vivo SMT, in particular, has recently evolved as a promising methodology to probe enhancer function in live cells. Integration of findings from the many approaches now employed in the study of enhancer function suggest a highly dynamic view for the action of enhancer activating factors, viewed on a time scale of milliseconds to seconds, rather than minutes to hours. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2018, 10:e1390. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1390 This article is categorized under: Analytical and Computational Methods > Computational Methods Laboratory Methods and Technologies > Genetic/Genomic Methods Laboratory Methods and Technologies > Imaging.
The Three Ds of Transcription Activation by Glucagon: Direct, Delayed, and Dynamic
. Endocrinology 2018
Upon lowered blood glucose occurring during fasting, glucagon is secreted from pancreatic islets, exerting various metabolic effects to normalize glucose levels. A considerable portion of these effects is mediated by glucagon-activated transcription factors (TFs) in liver. Glucagon directly activates several TFs via immediate cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)- and calcium-dependent signaling events. Among these TFs, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is a major factor. CREB recruits histone-modifying enzymes and cooperates with other TFs on the chromatin template to increase the rate of gene transcription. In addition to direct signal transduction, the transcriptional effects of glucagon are also influenced by dynamic TF cross talk. Specifically, assisted loading of one TF by a companion TF leads to increased binding and activity. Lastly, transcriptional regulation by glucagon is also exerted by TF cascades by which a primary TF induces the gene expression of secondary TFs that bring about their activity a few hours after the initial glucagon signal. This mechanism of a delayed response may be instrumental in establishing the temporal organization of the fasting response by which distinct metabolic events separate early from prolonged fasting. In this mini-review, we summarize recent advances and critical discoveries in glucagon-dependent gene regulation with a focus on direct TF activation, dynamic TF cross talk, and TF cascades.