ObjectiveBroccoli is a “functional food” that contains bioactive compounds and phytochemicals that have beneficial health-promoting effects. This study aimed at investigating the effects of broccoli consumption on lipid and glucose metabolism and gut microbiota.
Male C57BL/6J mice (7–8 wk old) were fed ad libitum with a normal diet supplemented with or without 10% (w/w) broccoli florets or broccoli stalks. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed at week 15. After 17 wk, blood and tissues were collected. Serum parameters, histology, gene and protein expression, and intestinal microbiota composition were evaluated.
Stalk supplementation led to reductions in fasting glucose levels, serum insulin, and the homeostasis model assessment–insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Liver enzymes improved in both experimental groups, and broccoli florets decreased total triacylglycerols. The stalks group had elevated fatty acid oxidation–related genes and proteins (AMPK, PPARα, and CPT1). Diverse microbiota populations were observed in both broccoli groups. Broccoli stalks were found to be richer in Akkermansia muciniphila, while broccoli florets reduced Mucispirillum schaedleri abundance and increased bacterial richness.
Long-term whole broccoli supplementation decreased inflammation, improved lipid parameters and insulin sensitivity, and altered the gut microbiome in mice. Our data provide new information regarding the potential benefits of broccoli stalks in metabolic parameters.