Rapid Detection and Quantification of Patulin and Citrinin Contamination in Fruits
. MOLECULES 2021
Patulin (PAT) and citrinin (CTN) are the most common mycotoxins produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus species and are often associated with fruits and fruit by-products. Hence, simple and reliable methods for monitoring these toxins in foodstuffs are required for regular quality assessment. In this study, we aimed to establish a cost-effective method for detection and quantification of PAT and CTN in pome fruits, such as apples and pears, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with spectroscopic detectors without the need for any clean-up steps. The method showed good performance in the analysis of these mycotoxins in apple and pear fruit samples with recovery ranges of 55-97% for PAT and 84-101% for CTN, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) of PAT and CTN in fruits were 0.006 mu g/g and 0.001 mu g/g, while their limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.018 mu g/g and 0.003 mu g/g, respectively. The present findings indicate that the newly developed HPLC method provides rapid and accurate detection of PAT and CTN in fruits.
Time-Restricted Feeding in Commercial Layer Chickens Improves Egg Quality in Old Age and Points to Lack of Adipostat Activity in Chickens
. FRONTIERS IN PHYSIOLOGY 2021
In mammals, time-restricted feeding (TRF) with no caloric restriction provides health benefits and extends longevity, usually with a minor (similar to 3%) or no reduction in total food consumption. In the current study, a TRF regimen of 6 h free access to food (08:00-14:00 h) was applied to Leghorn chickens from 25 to 86 weeks of age; control birds ate freely during the light hours (06:00-20:00 h). Unexpectedly, the TRF-treated birds consumed, on average, 11.7% less food than the controls. This was manifested by an average reduction of 9.6% in body weight, 2.6-fold in visceral fat accumulation, and 6.5% in egg weight. Hen-housed egg production was reduced by 3.6% in the TRF group compared with the control, along the first 40 weeks of the follow-up (P < 0.05), and changed into a tendency of 0.7% higher egg production thereafter. Several parameters of egg quality showed significant improvement (P < 0.05) in the TRF group compared with the controls. A comparison of diurnal patterns of feed consumption revealed a higher rate of hourly consumption in the TRF group and increased consumption before dark in the control group. In conclusion, the reduced feed intake in response to the TRF treatment and loss in visceral fat accumulation supports the lack of a strong adipostat activity in chickens and different appetite regulation mechanisms compared with mammals. Therefore, future TRF studies in chickens should be adjusted by extending the ad libitum time window. The lower feed intake by the TRF-treated chickens compared with the ad libitum-fed controls seems to reduce the efficiency of egg production. Nevertheless, the improved egg quality and persistence of egg lay at the older age suggest that similarly to mammals, the TRF treatment delayed at least some of the negative impacts associated with advanced age.
Review: beta-glucans as Effective Antibiotic Alternatives in Poultry
. MOLECULES 2021
The occurrence of microbial challenges in commercial poultry farming causes significant economic losses. Antibiotics have been used to control diseases involving bacterial infection in poultry. As the incidence of antibiotic resistance turns out to be a serious problem, there is increased pressure on producers to reduce antibiotic use. With the reduced availability of antibiotics, poultry producers are looking for feed additives to stimulate the immune system of the chicken to resist microbial infection. Some beta-glucans have been shown to improve gut health, to increase the flow of new immunocytes, increase macrophage function, stimulate phagocytosis, affect intestinal morphology, enhance goblet cell number and mucin-2 production, induce the increased expression of intestinal tight-junctions, and function as effective anti-inflammatory immunomodulators in poultry. As a result, beta-glucans may provide a new tool for producers trying to reduce or eliminate the use of antibiotics in fowl diets. The specific activity of each beta-glucan subtype still needs to be investigated. Upon knowledge, optimal beta-glucan mixtures may be implemented in order to obtain optimal growth performance, exert anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity, and optimized intestinal morphology and histology responses in poultry. This review provides an extensive overview of the current use of beta glucans as additives and putative use as antibiotic alternative in poultry.
Assessing adaptive requirements and breeding potential of spelt under Mediterranean environment
. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 2021
The rising demand for spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta) as a high-value grain crop has raised interest in its introduction into non-traditional spelt growing areas. This study aimed to assess adaptive constrains of spelt under short Mediterranean season. At first screening of a wide spelt collection for phenology and allelic distribution at the photoperiod (PPD) and vernalization (VRN) loci was done. In addition an in-depth phenotypic evaluation of a selected panel (n=20) was performed, including agronomically important traits and concentration of grain mineral (GMC) and grain protein (GPC) content. Results from both wide screening and in-depth in panel (group of 18 spelt lines and two bread wheat lines) evaluation shows that the major adaptive constraint for spelt under Mediterranean conditions is late heading, caused by day length sensitivity, as evident from phenology and allelic profile (PPD and VRN). All lines carrying the photoperiod-sensitive allele (PPD-D1b) were late flowering (>120DH). Based on the panel field evaluations those consequently suffer from low grain yield and poor agronomic performances. As for minerals, GMC for all but Zn, significantly correlated with GPC. In general, GMC negatively correlated with yield which complicated the assessment of GMC per-se and challenge the claim for higher mineral content in spelt grains. The exceptions were, Fe and Zn, which did not correlate with yield. Spelt lines showing high Fe and Zn concentration in a high-yield background illustrate their potential for spelt wheat breeding. Improving spelt adaptation to Mediterranean environments could be mediated by introducing the insensitive-PPD-D1a allele to spelt wheat background. Following this breeding path spelt could better compete with bread wheat under short season with limited and fluctuating rain fall.
S-Nitroso-N-acetylcysteine (NAC-SNO) vs. nitrite as an anti-clostridial additive for meat products
. FOOD & FUNCTION 2021
Nitrite is added to meat products as a preservative and it acts as a bacteriostatic compound against Clostridium botulinum growth. Nitric-oxide (NO), myoglobin and S-nitroso-compounds seem to be the main molecules generated from nitrite in meat products, which by decomposition to NO, form the main anti-clostridial factor. The growth of C. sporogenes from activated spores in the presence of 0.5-2.5 mM NAC-SNO was compared to nitrite, both at 37 degrees C for 5 days and at room temperature for 28 days. The present study demonstrates that NAC-SNO under the same conditions and concentrations, in meat products, acts as an anti-clostridial compound similar to nitrite. In contrast to nitrite which must be activated in meat by heating, NAC-SNO generates the anti-clostridial factor directly, without heating, as was evaluated in an unheated bacteriological medium. The toxic effect of NAC-SNO and nitrite in methaemoglobinaemia and generation of N-nitrosamines in vivo, in mice, were also determined. Mice were gavage fed milk containing 45 mg per kg per bw of nitrite or an equimolar equivalent of NAC-SNO in the presence of 50 mg per kg per bw of N-methylaniline. Nitrite generated methaemoglobinaemia and carcinogenic N-nitrosoamines (N-nitrosomethylaniline); however, NAC-SNO under the same conditions and concentrations generates much less methaemoglobin and no detectable N-nitrosoamines in the blood, in vivo.
Serum from type 2 diabetes patients consuming a three-meal diet resets circadian rhythms in cultured hepatocytes
. DIABETES RESEARCH AND CLINICAL PRACTICE 2021
Aims: Feeding regimens alter circadian rhythms in peripheral tissues, but the mechanism is not understood. We aimed to study whether soluble factors, rather than neuronal-based communication, directly influence circadian rhythms in the liver, in response to a nutritional treatment in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. Methods: Cultured hepatocytes were treated with serum of insulin-treated T2D patients following either a three-meal diet (3Mdiet) or six-meal diet (6Mdiet) and the circadian expression of clock and metabolic genes was measured. Results: Serum of the 3Mdiet group led to increased amplitudes and daily mRNA levels of the positive limb of the circadian clock (Clock, Bmal1, Rora). In parallel, serum of the 3Mdiet group led to the downregulation of the negative limb of the circadian clock (Cry1 and Per1), compared to both baseline and 6Mdiet. In contrast, serum of the 6Mdiet group led to a more distorted expression pattern. The catabolic genes Sirt1 and Ampk were significantly upregulated only by serum of the 3Mdiet group. Conclusions: Our results show that serum of type 2 diabetes patients consuming the 3Mdiet contains soluble factors that reset circadian rhythms leading to an expression pattern similar to that of healthy people. This clock pattern contributes to improved glucose metabolism. (c) 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Root-Associated Microbiomes, Growth and Health of Ornamental Geophytes Treated with Commercial Plant Growth-Promoting Products
. MICROORGANISMS 2021
The microbial community inhabiting a plant's root zone plays a crucial role in plant health and protection. To assess the ability of commercial plant growth-promoting products to enhance the positive effects of this environment, two products containing beneficial soil bacteria and a product containing plant extracts were tested on Zantedeschia aethiopica and Ornithogalum dubium. The products were tested in two different growing media: a soil and a soilless medium. The effects of these products on Pectobacterium brasiliense, the causal agent of soft rot disease, were also evaluated in vitro, and on naturally occurring infections in the greenhouse. The growing medium was found to have the strongest effect on the microbial diversity of the root-associated microbiome, with the next-strongest effect due to plant type. These results demonstrate that either a single bacterial strain or a product will scarcely reach the level that is required to influence soil microbial communities. In addition, the microbes cultured from these products, could not directly inhibit Pectobacterium growth in vitro. We suggest density-based and functional analyses in the future, to study the specific interactions between plants, soil type, soil microbiota and relevant pathogens. This should increase the effectiveness of bio-supplements and soil disinfestation with natural products, leading to more sustainable, environmentally friendly solutions for the control of bacterial plant diseases.
Ecological adaptations influence the susceptibility of plants in the genus Zantedeschia to soft rot Pectobacterium spp. HORTICULTURE RESEARCH 2021
Soft rot disease caused by Pectobacterium spp. is responsible for severe agricultural losses in potato, vegetables, and ornamentals. The genus Zantedeschia includes two botanical groups of tuberous ornamental flowers that are highly susceptible to the disease. Previous studies revealed that Z. aethiopica, a member of the section Zantedeschia, is significantly more resistant to Pectobacterium spp. than members of the same genus that belong to the section Aestivae. During early infection, we found different patterns of bacterial colonization on leaves of hosts belonging to the different sections. Similar patterns of bacterial colonization were observed on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) artificial inert replicas of leaf surfaces. The replicas confirmed the physical effect of leaf texture, in addition to a biochemical plant-bacterium interaction. The differential patterns may be associated with the greater roughness of the abaxial leaf surfaces of Aestivae group that have evolutionarily adapted to mountainous environments, as compared to Zantedeschia group species that have adapted to warm, marshy environments. Transverse leaf sections also revealed compact aerenchyma and reduced the total volume of leaf tissue air spaces in Aestivae members. Finally, an analysis of defense marker genes revealed differential expression patterns in response to infection, with significantly higher levels of lipoxygenase 2 (lox2) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (pal) observed in the more resistant Z. aethiopica, suggesting greater activation of induced systemic resistance (ISR) mechanisms in this group. The use of Zantedeschia as a model plant sheds light on how natural ecological adaptations may underlay resistance to bacterial soft rot in cultivated agricultural environments.
Fasting Hormones Synergistically Induce Amino Acid Catabolism Genes to Promote Gluconeogenesis
. CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY 2021
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gluconeogenesis from amino acids (AAs) maintains glucose homeostasis during fasting. Although glucagon is known to regulate AA catabolism, the contribution of other hormones to it and the scope of transcriptional regulation dictating AA catabolism are unknown. We explored the role of the fasting hormones glucagon and glucocorticoids in transcriptional regulation of AA catabolism genes and AA-dependent gluconeogenesis. METHODS: We tested the RNA expression of AA catabolism genes and glucose production in primary mouse hepatocytes treated with fasting hormones (glucagon, corticosterone) and feeding hormones (insulin, fibroblast growth factor 19). We analyzed genomic data of chromatin accessibility and chromatin immunoprecipitation in mice and primary mouse hepatocytes. We performed chromatin immunoprecipitation in livers of fasted mice to show binding of cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). RESULTS: Fasting induced the expression of 31 genes with various roles in AA catabolism. Of them, 15 were synergistically induced by co-treatment of glucagon and corticosterone. Synergistic gene expression relied on the activity of both CREB and GR and was abolished by treatment with either insulin or fibroblast growth factor 19. Enhancers adjacent to synergistically induced genes became more accessible and were bound by CREB and GR on fasting. Akin to the gene expression pattern, gluconeogenesis from AAs was synergistically induced by glucagon and corticosterone in a CREB- and GR-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS: Transcriptional regulation of AA catabolism genes during fasting is widespread and is driven by glucagon (via CREB) and corticosterone (via GR). Glucose production in hepatocytes is also synergistically augmented, showing that glucagon alone is insufficient in fully activating gluconeogenesis.
Random Peptide Mixtures as Safe and Effective Antimicrobials against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and MRSA in Mouse Models of Bacteremia and Pneumonia
. ACS INFECTIOUS DISEASES 2021
Antibiotic resistance is a daunting challenge in modern medicine, and novel approaches that minimize the emergence of resistant pathogens are desperately needed. Antimicrobial peptides are newer therapeutics that attempt to do this; however, they fall short because of low to moderate antimicrobial activity, low protease stability, susceptibility to resistance development, and high cost of production. The recently developed random peptide mixtures (RPMs) are promising alternatives. RPMs are synthesized by incorporating a defined proportion of two amino acids at each coupling step rather than just one, making them highly variable but still defined in their overall composition, chain length, and stereochemistry. Because RPMs have extreme diversity, it is unlikely that bacteria would be capable of rapidly evolving resistance. However, their efficacy against pathogens in animal models of human infectious diseases remained uncharacterized. Here, we demonstrated that RPMs have strong safety and pharmacokinetic profiles. RPMs rapidly killed both Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus efficiently and disrupted preformed biofilms by both pathogens. Importantly, RPMs were efficacious against both pathogens in mouse models of bacteremia and acute pneumonia. Our results demonstrate that RPMs are potent broad-spectrum therapeutics against antibiotic-resistant pathogens.
Phloretin, an Apple Phytoalexin, Affects the Virulence and Fitness of Pectobacterium brasiliense by Interfering With Quorum-Sensing
. FRONTIERS IN PLANT SCIENCE 2021
The effects of phloretin a phytoalexin from apple, was tested on Pectobacterium brasiliense (Pb1692), an emerging soft-rot pathogen of potato. Exposure of Pb1692 to 0.2 mM phloretin a concentration that does not affect growth, or to 0.4 mM a 50% growth inhibiting concentration (50% MIC), reduced motility, biofilm formation, secretion of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes, production of acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) signaling molecules and infection, phenotypes that are associated with bacterial population density-dependent system known as quorum sensing (QS). To analyze the effect of growth inhibition on QS, the activity of ciprofloxacin, an antibiotic that impairs cell division, was compared to that of phloretin at 50% MIC. Unlike phloretin, the antibiotic hardly affected the tested phenotypes. The use of DH5 alpha, a QS-negative Escherichia coli strain, transformed with an AHL synthase (ExpI) from Pb1692, allowed to validate direct inhibition of AHL production by phloretin, as demonstrated by two biosensor strains, Chromobacterium violaceaum (CV026) and E. coli (pSB401). Expression analysis of virulence-related genes revealed downregulation of QS-regulated genes (expI, expR, luxS, rsmB), plant cell wall degrading enzymes genes (pel, peh and prt) and motility genes (motA, fim, fliA, flhC and flhD) following exposure to both phloretin concentrations. The results support the inhibition of ExpI activity by phloretin. Docking simulations were used to predict the molecular associations between phloretin and the active site of ExpI, to suggest a likely mode of action for the compound's inhibition of virulence.
Detailed analysis of the fatty acid composition of six plant-pathogenic bacteria
. JOURNAL OF CHROMATOGRAPHY B-ANALYTICAL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE BIOMEDICAL AND LIFE SCIENCES 2021
Bacteria show distinct and characteristic fatty acid (FA) patterns which can be modified by environmental conditions. In this study, we cultivated six plant-pathogenic bacteria of agricultural concern and performed a detailed analysis of the fatty acid composition. The study covered four strains of the gram-negative Xanthomonas campestris pathovar (pv) campestris (Xcc), Xanthomonas perforans (Xp), Acidovorax citrulli (Ac) and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst), and two strains of the gram-positive Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) and Streptomyces scabies (Ssc). After cultivation, freeze-dried bacteria samples were transesterified and analysed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry in full scan and selected ion monitoring (SIM) modes. Altogether, 44 different FAs were detected in the six strains with individual contributions of 0.01-43.8% to the total FAs. The variety in the six strains ranged between 12 and 31 individual FAs. The FA composition of Xcc, Xp, Cmm and Ssc were dominated by iso- and anteiso-fatty acids (especially i15:0, a15:0, i16:0), which is typical for most bacteria. In contrast to this, Ac and Pst showed only saturated and monounsaturated FAs. Four of the six bacteria showed similar FA patterns as reported before in the literature. Differences were observed in the case of Cmm where many more FAs were detected in the present study. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, the FA pattern of Xp was presented for the first time.
Dietary broccoli improves markers associated with glucose and lipid metabolism through modulation of gut microbiota in mice
. NUTRITION 2021
Objective: Broccoli is a ``functional food'' that contains bioactive compounds and phytochemicals that have beneficial health-promoting effects. This study aimed at investigating the effects of broccoli consumption on lipid and glucose metabolism and gut microbiota. Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice (7-8 wk old) were fed ad libitum with a normal diet supplemented with or without 10% (w/w) broccoli florets or broccoli stalks. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed at week 15. After 17 wk, blood and tissues were collected. Serum parameters, histology, gene and protein expression, and intestinal microbiota composition were evaluated. Results: Stalk supplementation led to reductions in fasting glucose levels, serum insulin, and the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Liver enzymes improved in both experimental groups, and broccoli florets decreased total triacylglycerols. The stalks group had elevated fatty acid oxidation-related genes and proteins (AMPK, PPARa, and CPT1). Diverse microbiota populations were observed in both broccoli groups. Broccoli stalks were found to be richer in Akkermansia muciniphila, while broccoli florets reduced Mucispirillum schaedleri abundance and increased bacterial richness. Conclusions: Long-term whole broccoli supplementation decreased inflammation, improved lipid parameters and insulin sensitivity, and altered the gut microbiome in mice. Our data provide new information regarding the potential benefits of broccoli stalks in metabolic parameters. (C) 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
REV-ERB alpha alters circadian rhythms by modulating mTOR signaling
. MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR ENDOCRINOLOGY 2021
REV-ERB alpha is a nuclear receptor that inhibits Bmal1 transcription as part of the circadian clock molecular mechanism. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) is a master regulator of cell and whole-body energy homeostasis, that serves as an important link between metabolism and circadian clock, in part, by regulating BMAL1 activity. While the connection of REV-ERB alpha to the circadian clock molecular mechanism is well characterized, the interaction between mTORC1, REV-ERB alpha and the circadian clock machinery is not very clear. We used leucine and rapamycin to modulate mTORC1 activation and evaluate this effect on circadian rhythms. In the liver, mTORC1 was inhibited by leucine. REV-ERB alpha overexpression activated the mTORC1 signaling pathway via transcription inhibition of mTORC1 inhibitor, Tsc1, antagonizing the effect of leucine, while its silencing downregulated mTORC1 signaling. Activation of mTORC1 led to increased BMAL1 phosphorylation. Activation as well as inhibition of mTORC1 led to altered circadian rhythms in mouse muscle. Inhibition of liver mTORC1 by leucine or rapamycin led to low-amplitude circadian rhythms. In summary, our study shows that leucine inhibits liver mTORC1 pathway leading to dampened circadian rhythms. REV-ERB alpha activates the mTORC1 pathway, leading to phosphorylation of the clock protein BMAL1.
Broccoli consumption attenuates inflammation and modulates gut microbiome composition and gut integrity-related factors in mice fed with a high-fat high-cholesterol diet
. FOOD & NUTRITION RESEARCH 2021
Background: Nonalcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD) is a global health problem associated with gut dys-biosis and intestinal permeability. Broccoli is a natural source of bioactive phytochemicals, characterized by health-promoting properties. Objective: This study evaluated the effect of broccoli florets and stalks on liver fat accumulation, inflamma-tion, gut microbiome, and intestinal barrier integrity. Design: Male C57BL/6J mice (n = 32, 8-week-old) were fed with a high-fat high-cholesterol diet (HFCD) with/without 15% broccoli (florets or stalks) for 7 weeks. Liver damage was evaluated by changes in glucose response and histological and biochemical parameters. Protein and gene expressions related to liver inflam-mation were examined. The effect of broccoli on microbiota population together with genes related to barrier integrity in the gut was investigated. Results: Dietary broccoli improved the glycemic response assessed by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Histological evaluation showed no change in hepatic steatosis. Broccoli consumption also attenuated inflam-mation as revealed by lower inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) expression levels in broccoli-supplemented groups. Gut microbiota analysis demonstrated elevated Acidifaciens and re-duced Mucispirillum schaedleri abundance in the stalks group, whereas Proteobacteria strains abundance was increased in the florets group. Gut integrity remained unchanged. Conclusion: Broccoli supplementation improves glucose tolerance, attenuates liver inflammation, and alters microbial composition, but does not affect gut integrity. This research provides new evidence on the effects of dietary broccoli under HFCD.
In vivo predation and modification of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) gut microbiome by the bacterial predator Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus
. JOURNAL OF APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY 2021
Aims The Mediterranean fruit fly (the medfly) causes major losses of agricultural fruits. Its microbiome is mainly composed of various Enterobacteriaceae that contribute to nutrient acquisition and are associated with the fly's development. Moreover, the performance of males produced by the sterile insect technique is improved by providing mass-reared insects with specific gut bacteria. Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) are obligate predators of Gram-negative bacteria that efficiently preys upon diverse Enterobacteriaceae, making it a potential disruptor of the fly's microbiome. We hypothesized that the fly's microbiome can be targeted to control the insect. Methods and Results Inoculation of B. bacteriovorus as free-swimming or encapsulated cells into gut extracts significantly reduced gut bacterial abundance, sustaining predator survival. Similar treatments applied to adult flies showed that the predators also survived in the gut environment. While addition of the predators did not affect total gut bacterial abundance and end-point fly mortality, a shift in the gut community structure, measured by high-throughput community sequencing was observed. Conclusions The bacterial predator of bacteria B. bacteriovorus can prey and survive in vivo in the medfly gut. Significance and Impact of the Study This study establishes the potential of BALOs to affect the microbiome of insect hosts.
Broccoli Florets Supplementation Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Alters Gut Microbiome Population-A Steatosis Mice Model Induced by High-Fat Diet
. FRONTIERS IN NUTRITION 2021
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is linked to obesity, type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and gut dysbiosis. Gut microbiota profoundly affects the host energy homeostasis, which, in turn, is affected by a high-fat diet (HFD) through the liver-gut axis, among others. Broccoli contains beneficial bioactive compounds and may protect against several diseases. This study aimed to determine the effects of broccoli supplementation to an HFD on metabolic parameters and gut microbiome in mice. Male (7-8 weeks old) C57BL/J6 mice were divided into four groups: normal diet (ND), high-fat diet (HFD), high-fat diet+10% broccoli florets (HFD + F), and high-fat diet + 10% broccoli stalks (HFD + S). Liver histology and serum biochemical factors were evaluated. Alterations in protein and gene expression of the key players in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism as well as in gut microbiota alterations were also investigated. Broccoli florets addition to the HFD significantly reduced serum insulin levels, HOMA-IR index, and upregulated adiponectin receptor expression. Conversely, no significant difference was found in the group supplemented with broccoli stalks. Both broccoli stalks and florets did not affect fat accumulation, carbohydrate, or lipid metabolism-related parameters. Modifications in diversity and in microbial structure of proteobacteria strains, Akermansia muciniphila and Mucispirillum schaedleri were observed in the broccoli-supplemented HFD-fed mice. The present study suggests that dietary broccoli alters parameters related to insulin sensitivity and modulates the intestinal environment. More studies are needed to confirm the results of this study and to investigate the mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects.
Removal of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol from aquaculture water by novel, alginate-based carriers: Performance and metagenomic analysis
. JOURNAL OF WATER PROCESS ENGINEERING 2021
Hydrophobic carriers were examined for geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol removal from water derived from an aquaculture system. A combination of adsorption and biodegradation was found to underlie the removal of the off-flavor compounds. Adsorption of these compounds by the carriers was unaffected by the presence of organic matter in the water to be treated. A model based on adsorption/desorption and first-order degradation kinetics provided an accurate prediction for experimentally determined 2-methylisoborneol removal rates. Steady removal of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol as well as nitrate reduction were observed during long-term operation of the plug-flow reactors with water derived from an aquaculture facility. Metagenomic analysis of the microbial community on the carriers during long-term operation of the reactors revealed a predominance of denitrifying bacteria. It was found that geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol led to statistically significant changes in the abundances of 21 contigs that contained genes involved in terpene degradation. This study shows that at low ambient concentrations of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol in nitrate and organic-rich water, such as found in aquaculture systems, their biodegradation can be accomplished by terpene-degrading denitrifiers that develop on hydrophobic carriers used for filtration of the contaminated water.
Whole body metabolism is improved by hemin added to high fat diet while counteracted by nitrite: a mouse model of processed meat consumption
. FOOD & FUNCTION 2021
Nitrites and nitrates are traditional food additives used as curing agents in the food industry. They inhibit the growth of microorganisms and give a typical pink color to meat. Besides the positive effects of nitrite in foods, if present at high levels in the body, may induce hypoxia and contribute to the production of pro-carcinogenic secondary N-nitrosamines. This study investigated the whole-body metabolic effects of hemin and nitrite added to a high fat diet as red and processed red meat nutritional models. Mice were fed for 11 weeks with five different diets-(1) control diet (ND), (2) high fat diet (HFD) with 60% fat, (3) HFD with hemin (HFD + H, red meat model), (4) HFD with hemin and nitrite (HFD + HN, processed meat model), and (5) HFD with hemin, nitrite, and secondary amine (HFD + HNN, N-nitrosamine generating model)-and several metabolic parameters were determined and respiratory measurements were performed. Mice fed with the HFD + H or HFD + HNN diet had a lower epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) : body ratio and lower fasting glucose level than those fed the HFD alone. In addition, our results demonstrated a relief in hepatosteatosis grade among the HFD + H and HFD + HNN diet fed mice. Nitrite added to the HFD impaired the ability to use fat for energy, opposite to the effect of hemin. This study shows that nitrite in addition to pro-carcinogenesis and hypoxia can impact metabolic disease progression when added to meat.