Bitterless guaifenesin prodrugs—design, synthesis, characterization, in vitro kinetics, and bitterness studies
. Chemical Biology & Drug Design 2019
, 262 - 271. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Abstract A respected number of drugs suffer from bitter taste which results in patient incompliance. With the aim of solving the bitterness of guaifenesin, dimethyl maleate, maleate, glutarate, succinate, and dimethyl succinate prodrugs were designed and synthesized. Molecular orbital methods were utilized for the design of the ester prodrugs. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations revealed that the hydrolysis efficiency of the synthesized prodrugs is significantly sensitive to the pattern of substitution on C=C bond and distance between the nucleophile and the electrophile. The hydrolysis of the prodrugs was largely affected by the pH of the medium. The experimental t1/2 for the hydrolysis of guaifenesin dimaleate ester prodrugs in 1N HCl was the least and for guaifenesin dimethyl succinate was the highest. Functional heterologous expression of TAS2R14, a broadly tuned bitter taste receptor responding to guaifenesin, and experiments using these prodrugs revealed that, while some of the prodrugs still activated the receptor similarly or even stronger than the parent substance, succinate derivatization resulted in the complete loss of receptor responses. The predicted binding modes of guaifenesin and its prodrugs to the TAS2R14 homology model suggest that the decreased activity of the succinate derivatives may be caused by a clash with Phe247.
Author Correction: RGS7 is recurrently mutated in melanoma and promotes migration and invasion of human cancer cells
. Scientific Reports 2019
4523. Publisher's VersionAbstract
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
A bioinspired in vitro bioelectronic tongue with human T2R38 receptor for high-specificity detection of N-C=S-containing compounds
. Talanta 2019
, 131 - 139. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Detection and identification of bitter compounds draw great attention in pharmaceutical and food industry. Several well-known agonists of specific bitter taste receptors have been found to exhibit anti-cancer effects. For example, N-C=S-containing compounds, such as allyl-isothiocyanates, have shown cancer chemo-preventive effects. It is worth noting that human T2R38 receptor is specific for compounds containing N-C=S moiety. Here, a bioinspired cell-based bioelctronic tongue (BioET) is developed for the high-specificity isothiocyanate-induced bitter detection, utilizing human Caco-2 cells as a primary sensing element and interdigitated impedance sensor as a secondary transducer. As an intestinal carcinoma cell line, Caco-2 endogenously expresses human bitter receptor T2R38, and the activation of T2R38 induces the changes of cellular morphology which can be detected by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS). After configuration and optimization of parameters including timing of compound administration and cell density, quantitative bitter evaluation models were built for two well-known bitter compounds, phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and propylthiouracil (PROP). The bitter specific detection of this BioET is inhibited by probenecid and U-73122, and is not elicited by other taste modalities or bitter ligands that do not activate T2R38. Moreover, by combining different computational tools, we designed a ligand-based virtual screening (LBVS) protocol to select ligands that are likely to activate T2R38 receptor. Three computationally predicted agonists of T2R38 were selected using the LBVS protocol, and the BioET presented response to the predicted agonists, validating the capability of the LBVS protocol. This study suggests this unique cell-based BioET paves a general and promising way to specifically detect N-C=S-containing compounds that can be used for pharmaceutical study and drug development.
Polymorphism in Cytochrome P450 3A4 Is Ethnicity Related
. Front. Genet., 2019
, 224. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Can mutations in cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the major food- and drug-metabolizing enzyme, serve as biomarkers for personalized precise medicine? Classical genetic studies provide only limited data regarding the frequencies of CYP3A4 mutations and their role in food-drug interactions. Here, in an analysis of one large database of 141,456 individuals, we found 856 SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism), of which 312 are missense mutations, far more than the previously reported dozens. Analyzing the data further, it is demonstrated that the frequency of mutations differs among ethnic groups. Hierarchical clustering divided the mutations into seven groups, each corresponding to a specific ethnicity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive analysis of CYP3A4 allele frequencies in distinct ethnic groups. We suggest ethnicity based classification of CYP3A4 SNPs as the first step towards precise diet and medicine. Understanding which and when polymorphism might have clinical significance is a tremendously complex task. Using a modeling approach, we could predict changes in the binding poses of ligands in the active site of single variants. These changes might imply clinical effects of the overlooked protein-altering CYP3A4 mutations, by modifying drug metabolism and FDI. It may be concluded that dietary habits, and hence FDI, are matters of ethnicity. Consequently, ethnic-related polymorphism in CYP3A4 and diet may be one underlying mechanism of response to medical regimes. The approaches presented here have the power to highlight mutations of clinical relevance in any gene of interest, thus to complement the arsenal of classic genetic screening tools.
A novel nonosteocytic regulatory mechanism of bone modeling
. PLOS Biology 2019
, e3000140 -. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Bone’s ability to change its morphology in response to load is widely attributed to osteocytes. A study of fish shows that bone can respond to load even in the absence of osteocytes, using a molecular mechanism that is conserved across vertebrates, albeit with different cellular effectors.
Reduced Final Height and Inadequate Nutritional Intake in Cow's Milk-Allergic Young Adults
. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice 2019
509 - 515. Publisher's VersionAbstract
BackgroundGrowth impairment was previously described in milk-allergic children but was not examined in adults on reaching final height. Objectives To investigate the dietary intake and final stature of young adults with IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy (IgE-CMA) as compared with nonallergic controls. Methods Eighty-seven patients with IgE-CMA, median age 19.5 years (interquartile range [IQR], 17.3-22.7), and 36 control participants without food allergies, median age 22.7 years (IQR, 18.9-26.1), were studied. Anthropometric and nutritional data were collected. Age and gender z-scores were determined according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. Nutrient intake assessment was based on dietary records. Individuals with conditions or treatments affecting bone metabolism or growth, other than asthma, were excluded. Results Mean values of height z-scores were significantly reduced in CMA subjects compared with controls (−0.64 ± 0.9 vs −0.04 ± 0.7, P = .001). In contrast, no differences were found between the 2 groups in weight and body mass index z-scores. Patients with CMA had significantly lower intake of protein, and several essential vitamins (A, B12, and riboflavin) and minerals (calcium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, and zinc) compared with controls (P < .05), but the intakes of calories, carbohydrate, and fat were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Differences between actual and expected (based on midparental height) height z-scores were comparable in CMA subjects with or without asthma and between those with and without additional food allergies. Conclusions Young adults who have CMA from infancy are at risk of not reaching their growth potential. Growth and nutritional monitoring and appropriate dietary intervention are of particular importance in these at-risk individuals.
Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes on paperboard, a food packaging material, using 410 nm light emitting diodes
. Food Control 2019
, 281 - 290. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Light emitting diodes of wavelength 410 nm were used to inactivate Listeria monocytogenes stains on paperboard, an increasingly popular food packaging material. The integrity of the cell membranes was examined using differential fluorescent staining. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to obtain a deeper understanding of L. monocytogenes stain formation on paperboard and the damage caused to the cells by the LEDs. While the planktonic L. monocytogenes population could be completely inactivated following a brief lag phase that lasted about 20 min, the illumination of the sessile population left some persisters despite immediate commencement of the inactivation. Planktonic populations of inocula sized 3, 5 and 7 log CFU/mL were reduced below the detection limit in 54, 80 and 84 min respectively, whereas it took 120 and 390 min to reach constancy in the sessile populations of inocula sized 5 and 7 log CFU/cm2. The number of membrane-damaged cells was seen to increase with the illumination time. SEM images provided evidence of the protection conferred by the stain on the underlying cells. This study demonstrates that blue LEDs have the potential to reduce the risk of L. monocytogenes contamination from paperboard cartons under refrigeration.
Clock Gene Disruption is an Initial Manifestation of Inflammatory Bowel Disease
. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2019
. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Background & AimsSleep disruption modifies the immune system and can trigger flares of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Changes in expression of clock genes have been reported in patients with IBD. We investigated whether a change in the circadian clock is an early event in development of IBD. Methods We performed a prospective study of patients younger than 21 years old who underwent diagnostic endoscopies at the pediatric and adult gastroenterology units at the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center from August 2016 through August 2017. Questionnaires were completed by 32 patients with IBD (8–21 years old) and 18 healthy individuals (controls) that provided data on demographics, sleep, disease activity scores. We also obtained data on endoscopic scores, anthropometric parameters, blood level of C-reactive protein (CRP), and fecal level of calprotectin. Peripheral blood and intestinal mucosa samples were analyzed for expression levels of clock gene (CLOCK, BMAL1, CRY1, CRY2, PER1, and PER2). Results Levels of CRP and fecal calprotectin were significantly higher in patients with IBD compared with controls (P<.05). Expression levels of clock genes (CLOCK, CRY1, CRY2, PER1, and PER2) were significantly lower in inflamed intestinal mucosa from patients compared with intestinal mucosa from controls (P<.05). Expression levels of all clock genes except for PER2, were also significantly lower in non-inflamed intestinal mucosal tissues from patients compared with controls (P<.05). Expression levels of clock genes (CLOCK, BMAL1, CRY1, CRY2, PER1 and PER2) were lower in white blood cells from patients with IBD compared with controls. This reduction was greater in white blood cells from patients with ulcerative colitis than in patients with Crohn's disease. Conclusion Young, newly diagnosed, untreated patients with IBD have reduced expression of clock genes in inflamed and non-inflamed intestinal mucosal samples, and also in blood cells, compared with healthy individuals. Alterations in expression of clock genes might be an early event in IBD pathogenesis. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03662646
Non-obesogenic doses of fatty acids modulate the functionality of the circadian clock in the liver
. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 2019
, 1795 - 1806. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Saturated fatty acids, such as palmitate, lead to circadian disruption in cell culture. Moreover, information regarding the effects of unsaturated fatty acids on circadian parameters is scarce. We aimed at studying the effects of low doses of saturated as well as unsaturated fatty acids on circadian metabolism in vivo and at deciphering the mechanism by which fatty acids convey their effect. Mice were fed non-obesogenic doses of palm or olive oil and hepatocytes were treated with palmitate and oleate. Mice fed non-obesogenic doses of palm oil showed increased signaling towards fatty acid synthesis, while olive oil increased signaling towards fatty acid oxidation. Low doses of palmitate and oleate were sufficient to alter circadian rhythms, due to changes in the expression and/or activity of key metabolic proteins. Palmitate, but not oleate, counteracted the reduction in lipid accumulation and BMAL1-induced expression of mitochondrial genes involved in fatty acid oxidation. Palmitate was also found to interfere with the transcriptional activity of CLOCK:BMAL1 by preventing BMAL1 deacetylation and activation. In addition, palmitate, but not oleate, reduced PER2-mediated transcriptional activation and increased REV-ERBα-mediated transcriptional inhibition of Bmal1. The inhibition of PER2-mediated transcriptional activation by palmitate was achieved by interfering with PER2 nuclear translocation. Indeed, PER2 reduced fat accumulation in hepatocytes and this reduction was prevented by palmitate. Herein, we show that the detrimental metabolic alteration seen with high doses of palmitate manifests itself early on even with non-obesogenic levels. This is achieved by modulating BMAL1 at several levels abrogating its activity and expression.
Ice-binding proteins and the applicability and limitations of the kinetic pinning model
. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 2019
, 20180391. Publisher's Version
Labyrinth ice pattern formation induced by near-infrared irradiation
. Science Advances 2019
eaav1598. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Patterns are broad phenomena that relate to biology, chemistry, and physics. The dendritic growth of crystals is the most well-known ice pattern formation process. Tyndall figures are water-melting patterns that occur when ice absorbs light and becomes superheated. Here, we report a previously undescribed ice and water pattern formation process induced by near-infrared irradiation that heats one phase more than the other in a two-phase system. The pattern formed during the irradiation of ice crystals tens of micrometers thick in solution near equilibrium. Dynamic holes and a microchannel labyrinth then formed in specific regions and were characterized by a typical distance between melted points. We concluded that the differential absorption of water and ice was the driving force for the pattern formation. Heating ice by laser absorption might be useful in applications such as the cryopreservation of biological samples.
Contrasting Behavior of Antifreeze Proteins: Ice Growth Inhibitors and Ice Nucleation Promoters
. The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 2019
, 966 - 972. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Several types of natural molecules interact specifically with ice crystals. Small antifreeze proteins (AFPs) adsorb to particular facets of ice crystals, thus inhibiting their growth, whereas larger ice-nucleating proteins (INPs) can trigger the formation of new ice crystals at temperatures much higher than the homogeneous ice nucleation temperature of pure water. It has been proposed that both types of proteins interact similarly with ice and that, in principle, they may be able to exhibit both functions. Here we investigated two naturally occurring antifreeze proteins, one from fish, type-III AFP, and one from beetles, TmAFP. We show that in addition to ice growth inhibition, both can also trigger ice nucleation above the homogeneous freezing temperature, providing unambiguous experimental proof for their contrasting behavior. Our analysis suggests that the predominant difference between AFPs and INPs is their molecular size, which is a very good predictor of their ice nucleation temperature.Several types of natural molecules interact specifically with ice crystals. Small antifreeze proteins (AFPs) adsorb to particular facets of ice crystals, thus inhibiting their growth, whereas larger ice-nucleating proteins (INPs) can trigger the formation of new ice crystals at temperatures much higher than the homogeneous ice nucleation temperature of pure water. It has been proposed that both types of proteins interact similarly with ice and that, in principle, they may be able to exhibit both functions. Here we investigated two naturally occurring antifreeze proteins, one from fish, type-III AFP, and one from beetles, TmAFP. We show that in addition to ice growth inhibition, both can also trigger ice nucleation above the homogeneous freezing temperature, providing unambiguous experimental proof for their contrasting behavior. Our analysis suggests that the predominant difference between AFPs and INPs is their molecular size, which is a very good predictor of their ice nucleation temperature.
Saturn-Shaped Ice Burst Pattern and Fast Basal Binding of an Ice-Binding Protein from an Antarctic Bacterial Consortium
. Langmuir 2019
, 7337 - 7346. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Ice-binding proteins (IBPs) bind to ice crystals and control their growth, enabling host organisms to adapt to subzero temperatures. By binding to ice, IBPs can affect the shape and recrystallization of ice crystals. The shapes of ice crystals produced by IBPs vary and are partially due to which ice planes the IBPs are bound to. Previously, we have described a bacterial IBP found in the metagenome of the symbionts of Euplotes focardii (EfcIBP). EfcIBP shows remarkable ice recrystallization inhibition activity. As recrystallization inhibition of IBPs and other materials are important to the cryopreservation of cells and tissues, we speculate that the EfcIBP can play a future role as an ice recrystallization inhibitor in cryopreservation applications. Here we show that EfcIBP results in a Saturn-shaped ice burst pattern, which may be due to the unique ice-plane affinity of the protein that we elucidated using the fluorescent-based ice-plane affinity analysis. EfcIBP binds to ice at a speed similar to that of other moderate IBPs (5 ± 2 mM–1 s–1); however, it is unique in that it binds to the basal and previously unobserved pyramidal near-basal planes, while other moderate IBPs typically bind to the prism and pyramidal planes and not basal or near-basal planes. These insights into EfcIBP allow a better understanding of the recrystallization inhibition for this unique protein.Ice-binding proteins (IBPs) bind to ice crystals and control their growth, enabling host organisms to adapt to subzero temperatures. By binding to ice, IBPs can affect the shape and recrystallization of ice crystals. The shapes of ice crystals produced by IBPs vary and are partially due to which ice planes the IBPs are bound to. Previously, we have described a bacterial IBP found in the metagenome of the symbionts of Euplotes focardii (EfcIBP). EfcIBP shows remarkable ice recrystallization inhibition activity. As recrystallization inhibition of IBPs and other materials are important to the cryopreservation of cells and tissues, we speculate that the EfcIBP can play a future role as an ice recrystallization inhibitor in cryopreservation applications. Here we show that EfcIBP results in a Saturn-shaped ice burst pattern, which may be due to the unique ice-plane affinity of the protein that we elucidated using the fluorescent-based ice-plane affinity analysis. EfcIBP binds to ice at a speed similar to that of other moderate IBPs (5 ± 2 mM–1 s–1); however, it is unique in that it binds to the basal and previously unobserved pyramidal near-basal planes, while other moderate IBPs typically bind to the prism and pyramidal planes and not basal or near-basal planes. These insights into EfcIBP allow a better understanding of the recrystallization inhibition for this unique protein.
Protein–Water–Ice Contact Angle
. Langmuir 2019
, 7383 - 7387. Publisher's VersionAbstract
The protein–water–ice contact angle is a controlling parameter in diverse fields. Here we show that data from three different experiments, at three different length scales, with three different proteins, in three different laboratories yield a consistent value for the protein–water–ice contact angle (88.0 ± 1.3°) when analyzed using the Gibbs–Thomson equation. The measurements reinforce the validity of each other, and the fact that similar values are obtained across diverse length scales, experiments, and proteins yields insight into protein–water interactions and the applicability of thermodynamics at the nanoscale.The protein–water–ice contact angle is a controlling parameter in diverse fields. Here we show that data from three different experiments, at three different length scales, with three different proteins, in three different laboratories yield a consistent value for the protein–water–ice contact angle (88.0 ± 1.3°) when analyzed using the Gibbs–Thomson equation. The measurements reinforce the validity of each other, and the fact that similar values are obtained across diverse length scales, experiments, and proteins yields insight into protein–water interactions and the applicability of thermodynamics at the nanoscale.
Direct Cryo Writing of Aerogels via 3D Printing of Aligned Cellulose Nanocrystals Inspired by the Plant Cell Wall
. Colloids and Interfaces 2019
. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Aerogel objects inspired by plant cell wall components and structures were fabricated using extrusion-based 3D printing at cryogenic temperatures. The printing process combines 3D printing with the alignment of rod-shaped nanoparticles through the freeze-casting of aqueous inks. We have named this method direct cryo writing (DCW) as it encompasses in a single processing step traditional directional freeze casting and the spatial fidelity of 3D printing. DCW is demonstrated with inks that are composed of an aqueous mixture of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and xyloglucan (XG), which are the major building blocks of plant cell walls. Rapid fixation of the inks is achieved through tailored rheological properties and controlled directional freezing. Morphological evaluation revealed the role of ice crystal growth in the alignment of CNCs and XG. The structure of the aerogels changed from organized and tubular to disordered and flakey pores with an increase in XG content. The internal structure of the printed objects mimics the structure of various wood species and can therefore be used to create wood-like structures via additive manufacturing technologies using only renewable wood-based materials.
Methods for Studying Mitophagy in Yeast
. In Autophagy: Methods and Protocols
; Autophagy: Methods and Protocols; Springer New York: New York, NY, 2019; pp. 669 - 678. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Under some experimental conditions, eukaryotic cells, from yeast to man, will digest a portion of their mitochondrial cohort through an autophagic process termed mitophagy. In humans, defects in mitophagy have been proposed to play a causative role in a number of late-onset degenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease and type II diabetes. As a consequence the study of mitophagy, as a quality control process in eukaryotic cells, has become an increasingly important focus in contemporary cell biology. When faced with the task of assaying mitophagy in yeast, the experimentalist has at his or her disposal a variety of induction conditions and assay systems to choose from. Here, we survey several well-established protocols for inducing and monitoring mitophagy in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and discuss their relative merits, limitations, and potential pitfalls.
Insulin regulation of gluconeogenesis
. Annals of the New York Academy of SciencesAnnals of the New York Academy of SciencesAnn. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 2018
, 21 - 35. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Abstract The coordinated regulation between cellular glucose uptake and endogenous glucose production is indispensable for the maintenance of constant blood glucose concentrations. The liver contributes significantly to this process by altering the levels of hepatic glucose release, through controlling the processes of de novo glucose production (gluconeogenesis) and glycogen breakdown (glycogenolysis). Various nutritional and hormonal stimuli signal to alter hepatic gluconeogenic flux, and suppression of this metabolic pathway during the postprandial state can, to a significant extent, be attributed to insulin. Here, we review some of the molecular mechanisms through which insulin modulates hepatic gluconeogenesis, thus controlling glucose production by the liver to ultimately maintain normoglycemia. Various signaling pathways governed by insulin converge at the level of transcriptional regulation of the key hepatic gluconeogenic genes PCK1 and G6PC, highlighting this as one of the focal mechanisms through which gluconeogenesis is modulated. In individuals with compromised insulin signaling, such as insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes, insulin fails to suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis, even in the fed state; hence, an insight into these insulin-moderated pathways is critical for therapeutic purposes.
Expression of duodenal iron transporter proteins in diabetic patients with and without iron deficiency anemia
. Journal of Diabetes Research 2018
. Publisher's VersionAbstract
The role of iron transport proteins in the pathogenesis of anemia in patients with diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is still unclear. We investigated the expression of duodenal transporter proteins in diabetic patients with and without iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Methods. Overall, 39 patients were included: 16 with T2DM and IDA (group A), 11 with T2DM without IDA (group B), and 12 controls (group C). Duodenal mucosal expression of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), ferroportin 1 (FPN), hephaestin (HEPH), and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR) was evaluated by Western blotting. Chronic disease activity markers were measured as well. Results. FPN expression was increased in group A compared to group B and controls: 1.17 (0.72-1.46), 0.76 (0.53-1.04), and 0.71 (0.64-0.86), respectively (p = 0 011). TfR levels were over expressed in groups A and B compared to controls: 0.39 (0.26-0.61), 0.36 (0.24-0.43), and 0.18 (0.16-0.24), respectively, (p = 0 004). The three groups did not differ significantly with regard to cellular HEPH and DMT1 expression. The normal CRP and serum ferritin levels, accompanied with normal FPN among diabetic patients without IDA, do not support the association of IDA with chronic inflammatory state. Conclusion. In patients with T2DM and IDA, duodenal iron transport protein expression might be dependent on body iron stores rather than by chronic inflammation or diabetes per se. Copyright © 2018 Efrat Broide et al.
Food engineering and food science and technology: Forward-looking journey to future new horizons
. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 2018
, 326-334. Publisher's VersionAbstract
The overall objectives of this study were to assess the status of Food Engineering (FE), Food Science and Technology (FS&T) and related fields using a global web-survey and included: identifying the major challenges and opportunities; and making specific recommendations for future possible paradigm shifts. Respondents from academia, private research institutes, industry, government, consulting and others sectors participated. The most important topics selected were: ‘Innovation/open innovation,’ ‘Broad education and multidisciplinary capabilities,’ ‘Career development & prospects,’ and ‘Applied research.’ Lowest importance were ‘Basic science’ and ‘Salary.’ Highest possible impact on FE and FS&T future curricula were: ‘Food safety, waste reduction/management’ and ‘Environmental impact, food sustainability and security.’ Overwhelming majority (>68%) indicated that FE or FS&T should be integrated with other existing/evolving academic program. Principal component analysis yielded 3-new variables, offering insights on the relationships between geographical education location and sustainability, innovation and employability. The competitive landscape calls for reshaping of the domains vision. Industrial relevance: • Basic research and salary were selected by the respondents to have a very low importance. Enhancing applied research, agility, attractiveness of the field and strengthen research relevance and collaboration with industry are required.• Both government/state and food industry financial support is a clear indication of the significant role they play in the innovation ecosystem collaboration.• Significant difference between North America & Canada and Europe on addressing innovation, soft skills and employability offer new insights on enhancing utilization of innovation, science, technology and impact.• Innovation and open innovation offer FE and FS&T unique new horizons for spearheading change and opportunities to alleviate typical industrial and academic conservativeness and risk aversion. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd