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Head of Institute: Prof. Oren Froy

Administrative manager: Ms. Yael Fruchter

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Publications

2018
Sason, G. ; Nussinovitch, A. Characterization of κ-carrageenan gels immersed in ethanol solutions. Food Hydrocolloids 2018, 79, 136-144. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Studying the influence of water–ethanol mixtures on the properties of κ-carrageenan gels could serve as a tool for the development of innovative semi-solid alcohol-containing food products. The changes in κ-carrageenan gels upon immersion in solutions with various concentrations of ethanol were characterized. κ-Carrageenan gels immersed in high ethanol concentrations lost considerable weight. At lower ethanol concentrations (50%–70%), weight loss was only moderate. However, at ethanol concentrations lower than 50%, the gels swelled and gained weight. The swelling/deswelling of κ-carrageenan gels immersed in ethanol solutions was dependent on their hydrocolloid concentration. All gels became stronger with increasing concentration of ethanol in the surrounding solvent. This change in gel strength following immersion did not stem solely from the changes in hydrocolloid concentration upon swelling/deswelling. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy of the gels revealed microstructures consistent with the observed mechanical properties. The residual potassium concentration in gels immersed in the various ethanol solutions was found to be lower than that required for gelation, constituting possible evidence of changed interactions upon immersion. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd
Bilkis, I. ; Silman, I. ; Weiner, L. Generation of reactive oxygen species by photosensitizers and their modes of action on proteins. Current Medicinal Chemistry 2018, 25, 5528-5539. Publisher's VersionAbstract
In this review, we first survey the mechanisms underlying the chemical modification of amino acid residues in proteins by singlet oxygen elicited by photosensitizers. Singlet oxygen has the capacity to cause widespread chemical damage to cellular proteins. Its use in photodynamic therapy of tumors thus requires the development of methodologies for specific addressing of the photosensitizer to malignant cells while sparing normal tissue. We describe three targeting paradigms for achieving this objective. The first involves the use of a photosensitizer with a high affinity for its target protein; in this case, the photosensitizer is methylene blue for acetylcholinesterase. The second paradigm involves the use of the hydrophobic photosensitizer hypericin, which has the capacity to interact selectively with partially unfolded forms of proteins, including nascent species in rapidly dividing or virus-infected and cancer cells, acting preferentially at membrane interfaces. In this case, partially unfolded molten globule species of acetylcholinesterase serve as the model system. In the third paradigm, the photodynamic approach takes advantage of a general approach in ‘state-of-the-art’ chemotherapy, by coupling the photosensitizer emodin to a specific peptide hormone, GnRH, which recognizes malignant cells via specific GnRH receptors on their surface. © 2018 Bentham Science Publishers.
Polyakov, N. ; Leshina, T. ; Fedenok, L. ; Slepneva, I. ; Kirilyuk, I. ; Furso, J. ; Olchawa, M. ; Sarna, T. ; Elas, M. ; Bilkis, I. ; et al. Redox-Active Quinone Chelators: Properties, Mechanisms of Action, Cell Delivery, and Cell Toxicity. Antioxidants and Redox Signaling 2018, 28, 1394-1403. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Significance: Chemotherapy is currently the principal method for treating many malignancies. Thus, the development of improved antitumor drugs with enhanced efficacy and selectivity remains a high priority. Recent Advances: Anthracycline antibiotics (AAs), for example, doxorubicin, daunomycin, and mitomycin C, belong to an important family of antitumor agents widely used in chemotherapy. These compounds are all quinones. They are, thus, capable of being reduced by appropriate chemicals or reductases. One of their important properties is that under aerobic conditions their reduced forms undergo oxidation, with concomitant generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), namely, superoxide anion radicals, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals. The presence of metal ions is essential for the generation of ROS by AAs in biological systems. Critical Issues: A fundamental shortcoming of the AAs is their high cardiotoxicity. We have proposed, and experimentally realized, a new type of quinones that is capable of coordinating metal ions. We have demonstrated in vitro that they can be reduced by electron transfer chains and glutathione with concomitant generation of ROS. They can also produce ROS under photo-excitation. The mechanisms of these reactions have been characterized by using nuclear magnetic resonance and electron paramagnetic resonance. Future Directions: To enhance their therapeutic effectiveness, and decrease cardiotoxicity and other side effects, we intend to conjugate the quinone chelators with monoclonal antibodies and peptide hormones that are specifically targeted to receptors on the cancer cell surface. Some such candidates have already been synthesized. An alternative approach for delivery of our compounds involves the use of specific peptide-based nanoparticles. In addition, our novel approach for treating malignancies is also suitable for photodynamic therapy. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 1394-1403. © 2018, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Bein, A. ; Eventov-Friedman, S. ; Arbell, D. ; Schwartz, B. Intestinal tight junctions are severely altered in NEC preterm neonates. Pediatr Neonatol 2018, 59, 464-473.Abstract
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) is a severe inflammatory disorder of the intestine endangering the health and survival of preterm infants. It is well established that the gut barrier is severely damaged in NEC patients, nonetheless an in depth investigation of modifications at the transcriptional and translational levels of tight junction genes and proteins during NEC are still missing. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the expression of tight junctions and other associated proteins during NEC and determine their correlation to the disease severity. METHODS: We examined intestinal specimens from six NEC patients and compared them with six control specimens from patients that underwent surgeries for reasons other than NEC. The expression of genes was analyzed by real time PCR and protein expression by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The tight junction genes ZO-1, occludin, cingulin and claudin-4 were significantly down regulated in NEC. Furthermore TLR4, BAX and SIRT1 genes were found to be significantly down regulated while HIF-1A showed a trend of up regulation in NEC patients. These changes were found to correlate with the severity of the disease. Additionally we demonstrated in an ex-vivo model that hypoxic conditions initiated a destructive process of the epithelial barrier. We also showed that the expression of the tight junction proteins ZO-1 and occludin were significantly down regulated in NEC specimens. CONCLUSIONS: The expression of tight junction proteins and their encoding genes are significantly altered in NEC. We surmise that SIRT1 and HIF-1A may play a role in controlling these effects.
Vetvicka, V. ; Gover, O. ; Hayby, H. ; Danay, O. ; Ezov, N. ; Hadar, Y. ; Schwartz, B. Spatial Distribution of Glucan Type and Content between Caps and Stalks in Pleurotus eryngii: Impact on the Anti-inflammatory Functionality. International journal of molecular sciences 2018, 19, 3371. Publisher's VersionAbstract
: Pleurotus eryngii is recognized for its prominent nutritional and medicinal value. In our study, we tested the effect of glucans on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of TNF-α. We demonstrated that glucan extracts are more effective than mill mushroom preparations. Additionally, the effectiveness of stalk-derived glucans were slightly more pronounced than of caps. Cap and stalk glucans from mill or isolated glucan competed dose-dependently with anti-Dectin-and anti-CR-3 antibodies, indicating that they contain β-glucans recognized by these receptors. Using the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-inflammatory bowel disease mice model, intestinal inflammatory response to the mill preparations was measured and compared to extracted glucan fractions from caps and stalks. We found that mill and glucan extracts were very effective in downregulating IFN-γ and MIP-2 levels and that stalk-derived preparations were more effective than from caps. The tested glucans were equally effective in regulating the number of CD14/CD16 monocytes and upregulating the levels of fecal-released IgA to almost normal levels. In conclusion, the most effective glucans in ameliorating some IBD-inflammatory associated symptoms induced by DSS treatment in mice were glucan extracts prepared from the stalk of P. eryngii. These spatial distinctions may be helpful in selecting more effective specific anti-inflammatory mushrooms-derived glucans.
Yahav, S. ; Berkovich, Z. ; Ostrov, I. ; Reifen, R. ; Shemesh, M. Encapsulation of beneficial probiotic bacteria in extracellular matrix from biofilm-forming Bacillus subtilis. Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology 2018, 46, 974-982. Publisher's VersionAbstract
AbstractProbiotics, live microbial supplements, are often incorporated into foods and beverages to provide putative health benefits. To ensure their beneficial effects, these organisms must survive processing and storage of food, its passage through the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and subsequent chemical ingestion processes until they reach their target organ. However, there is considerable loss of viability of probiotic bacteria in the acidic conditions of the stomach and the high bile concentration in the small intestine. Bacillus subtilis, a spore-forming non-pathogenic bacterium, recently has gained interest in its probiotic properties; it can effectively maintain a favorable balance of microflora in the GIT. In addition, B. subtilis produces an extracellular matrix that protects it from stressful environments. We suggested that the extracellular matrix produced by B. subtilis could protect other probiotic bacteria and therefore potentially could be used as a vehicle for delivering viable probiotic cells to humans. Therefore, we developed a novel cultivation system that enables co-culturing of B. subtilis along with probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) by increasing production of the extracellular matrix by B. subtilis cells. Moreover, we showed that B. subtilis improved survivability of LAB during food preparation, storage and ingestion. Therefore, we believe that the results of our study will provide a novel technique of using a natural system for preservation and delivery of probiotics to humans.
Bahia, M. S. ; Nissim, I. ; Niv, M. Y. Bitterness prediction in-silico: A step towards better drugs. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 2018, 536, 526 - 529. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Bitter taste is innately aversive and thought to protect against consuming poisons. Bitter taste receptors (Tas2Rs) are G-protein coupled receptors, expressed both orally and extra-orally and proposed as novel targets for several indications, including asthma. Many clinical drugs elicit bitter taste, suggesting the possibility of drugs re-purposing. On the other hand, the bitter taste of medicine presents a major compliance problem for pediatric drugs. Thus, efficient tools for predicting, measuring and masking bitterness of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are required by the pharmaceutical industry. Here we highlight the BitterDB database of bitter compounds and survey the main computational approaches to prediction of bitter taste based on compound's chemical structure. Current in silico bitterness prediction methods provide encouraging results, can be constantly improved using growing experimental data, and present a reliable and efficient addition to the APIs development toolbox.
Cohen-Goldental, S. ; Biton, I. ; Zemach, H. ; Many, Y. ; Tonutti, P. ; Kerem, Z. ; Ben-Ari, G. Fruitlet abscission in olive (Olea europaea L.). In Acta Horticulturae; Acta Horticulturae; International Society for Horticultural Science (ISHS), Leuven, Belgium, 2018; pp. 215 - 220. Publisher's Version
Dag, A. ; Erel, R. ; Kerem, Z. ; Ben-Gal, A. ; Stern, N. ; Bustan, A. ; Zipori, I. ; Yermiyahu, U. Effect of nitrogen availability on olive oil quality. In Acta Horticulturae; Acta Horticulturae; International Society for Horticultural Science (ISHS), Leuven, Belgium, 2018; pp. 465 - 470. Publisher's Version
van-Oss, R. P. ; Gopher, A. ; Kerem, Z. ; Peleg, Z. ; Lev-Yadun, S. ; Sherman, A. ; Zhang, H. - B. ; Vandemark, G. ; Coyne, C. J. ; Reany, O. ; et al. Independent selection for seed free tryptophan content and vernalization response in chickpea domestication. Plant Breeding 2018, 137, 290-300. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Abstract Chickpea shows a distinct domestication trajectory vis-a-vis pod dehiscence and growth cycle mediated by vernalization insensitivity compared with its companion Near Eastern legumes. Our objectives were: (i) to map the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with vernalization response and seed free tryptophan in domesticated × wild chickpea progeny and (ii) estimate the genetic correlation between vernalization response and free tryptophan content. A domesticated × wild chickpea cross was used to document phenotypic segregation in both traits and to construct a skeletal genetic map for QTL detection. A number of vernalization response and seed free tryptophan content QTLs were documented in both F2 and F3 generations. No significant genetic correlation between these two traits was observed. Epistatic relationship between two free tryptophan loci was documented. It is evident that selection for high seed tryptophan is easier to accomplish relative to selection for vernalization insensitivity. This suggests that the two traits were selected independently in antiquity, thereby corroborating earlier claims for conscious selection processes associated with chickpea domestication.
Ocłoń, E. ; Solomon, G. ; Hrabia, A. ; Druyan, S. ; Hayouka, Z. ; Gertler, A. New reagents for poultry research: preparation, purification, and in vitro evaluation of non-PEGylated and mono-PEGylated chicken prolactin. Poultry Science 2018, 97, 3277 - 3285. Publisher's VersionAbstract
ABSTRACT Recombinant chicken prolactin (chPRL), expressed in Escherichia coli and purified as a monomer, was successfully PEGylated and purified to homogeneity as a mono-PEGylated protein (PEG-chPRL). Its biological activity was estimated by its ability to interact with human prolactin receptor extracellular domain (hPRLR-ECD) and stimulate PRLR-mediated proliferation in Nb2-11C cells. PEG-chPRL activity in a cell bioassay was 10-fold lower than that of non-PEGylated chPRL, but only 2-fold lower in a binding assay to hPRLR-ECD. The CD spectra of non-PEGylated and PEGylated chPRL were almost identical and similar to that of hPRL, indicating proper refolding. Although the PEGylation of chPRL resulted in lower activity in vitro, PEG-chPRL was absorbed more slowly than chPRL, remained in the circulation 16 h longer. Furthermore the effects of PEG-chPRL injections in chickens on subsequent corticosteroid levels in blood were significantly profound compared to chPRL. These favorable PEGylation-induced pharmacokinetic alterations should improve efficacy of PEG-chPRL in in vivo experiments, as dosing frequency can be reduced due to its prolonged persistence in the circulation, and thus reduce the frequency of dosing. Furthermore, hydrophobic interaction chromatography was successfully adopted to isolate PEG-chPRL as a better alternative for separation of PEGylated PRL, and is likely to be successfully applicable to other proteins.
Shpaizer, A. ; Nussinovitch, A. ; Kanner, J. ; Tirosh, O. S-Nitroso-N-acetylcysteine Generates Less Carcinogenic N-Nitrosamines in Meat Products than Nitrite. J Agric Food Chem 2018, 66, 11459-11467.Abstract
Nitrite reacts with secondary amines to form N-nitrosamines (N-NA), which lead to gastrointestinal cancers. The aim of this study was to compare nitrite with S-nitrosocysteine (Cys-SNO) and S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine (NAC-SNO) with respect to N-NA formation, which was evaluated by determining the conversion of N-methylaniline to N-nitrosomethylaniline. Under neutral and acidic pH conditions, N-NA formation rate was nitrite > Cys-SNO > NAC-SNO. In the presence of copper or nucleophiles, NAC-SNO generated much less N-NA than Cys-SNO. Nitrite and Cys-SNO produced higher amounts of N-NA in the presence of oxygen, whereas NAC-SNO was almost oxygen insensitive. In meat in the stomach medium, NAC-SNO produced much lower amounts of N-NA than other additives. In heated meat, Cys-SNO and NAC-SNO generated the nitrosyl-hemochrome pink pigment, better than nitrite. In conclusion, NAC-SNO was much less reactive for N-NA formation than nitrite and Cys-SNO in conditions relevant to meat production and stomach digestion.
Tirosh, O. Hypoxic Signaling and Cholesterol Lipotoxicity in Fatty Liver Disease Progression. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2018, 2018, 2548154.Abstract
Cholesterol is the only lipid whose absorption in the gastrointestinal tract is limited by gate-keeping transporters and efflux mechanisms, preventing its rapid absorption and accumulation in the liver and blood vessels. In this review, I explored the current data regarding cholesterol accumulation in liver cells and key mechanisms in cholesterol-induced fatty liver disease associated with the activation of deleterious hypoxic and nitric oxide signal transduction pathways. Although nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects both obese and nonobese individuals, the mechanism of NAFLD progression in lean individuals with healthy metabolism is puzzling. Lean NAFLD individuals exhibit normal metabolic responses, implying that liver damage is not associated with impaired metabolism per se and that direct lipotoxic effects are crucial for disease progression. Several redox and oxidant signaling pathways involving cholesterol are at play in fatty liver disease development. These include impairment of the mitochondrial and lysosomal function by cholesterol loading of the inner-cell membranes; formation of cholesterol crystals and hepatocyte degradation; and crown-like structures surrounding degrading hepatocytes, activating Kupffer cells, and evoking inflammation. The current review focuses on the induction of liver inflammation, fibrosis, and steatosis by free cholesterol via the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), a main oxygen-sensing transcription factor involved in all stages of NAFLD. Cholesterol loading in hepatocytes can result in chronic HIF-1 activity because of the decreased oxygen availability and excessive production of nitric oxide and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species.
Shtriker, M. G. ; Peri, I. ; Taieb, E. ; Nyska, A. ; Tirosh, O. ; Madar, Z. Galactomannan More than Pectin Exacerbates Liver Injury in Mice Fed with High-Fat, High-Cholesterol Diet. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 2018, 62, 1800331. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Scope Galactomannan and citrus pectin are considered ?super fibers? known for altering gut microbiota composition and improving glucose and lipid metabolism. The study aims to investigate the fiber's effect on a nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) model. Methods and results Two feeding experiments are carried out using groups of 7?8 week-old male C57BL/6J mice. The diets used are based on a high cholesterol/cholate diet (HCD), such as a nutritional NASH model. Mice are fed a diet with or without 15% fiber-citrus pectin (HCD-CP) or galactomannan (HCD-G) together with the HCD (first experiment), which commenced 3 weeks prior to the HCD (second experiment). Liver damage is evaluated by histological and biochemical parameters. Galactomannan leads to lesser weight gain and improved glucose tolerance, but increased liver damage. This is shown by elevated levels of liver enzymes compared to that with HCD alone. Fibers induce higher steatosis, as evaluated by liver histology. This intriguing result is linked to various changes in the gut microbiota, such as elevated Proteobacteria levels in the galactomannan group, which are correlated with disturbed metabolism and dysbiosis. Conclusions In a NASH mouse model, galactomannan increases liver damage but improves glucose metabolism. Changes in the microbiota composition may answer this enigmatic observation.
Ovadia, Y. ; Chris Sabastian, C. ; Dahl, L. ; Troen, A. M. ; Mabjeesh, S. The Effect of Iodophor Post-Milking Teat Disinfection on Iodine Content in Goat Milk. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine 2018, 73, 14 - 22.
Ovadia, Y. S. ; Gefel, D. ; Weizmann, N. ; Raizman, M. ; Goldsmith, R. ; Mabjeesh, S. ; Dahl, L. ; Troen, A. M. Low Iodine Intake from Dairy Foods Despite High Milk Iodine Content in Israel. Thyroid 2018, 28, 1042 - 1051. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Background: Milk is a major source of iodine in human nutrition. Because both iodine content and the consumption of milk and dairy vary widely over time and populations, their contribution to iodine intake must be evaluated regularly. A recent national iodine survey found Israel's population to be mildly iodine deficient, possibly due to unmonitored changes in the food content of dietary iodine. Accounting for dairy iodine content can help guide efforts to prevent iodine deficiency. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the iodine concentration of dairy products typically consumed in the Israeli diet, and to estimate iodine intake from dairy products among Israeli adults. Methods: Iodine was analyzed in 33 selected dairy products that account for 89% of the total population's dairy intake according to the ?MABAT? Israeli National Health and Nutrition survey. Based on these data, the distribution of iodine intake from milk, dairy, and dairy-based foods in the adult population was calculated. Results: Israeli milk is rich in iodine, with a mean concentration of 22??g/100?g. However, due to low dairy consumption, the mean iodine intake from milk and dairy was only 34??g/day (median 23??g/day; range: 0?337??g/day) or 22% of the recommended daily allowance. Self-reported intake among poor, male, and Arab subgroups was even lower. Conclusions: Because Israeli milk and dairy products are iodine rich, their contribution to the population's iodine intake would increase if they were consumed in greater amounts, particularly by high-risk groups. Dairy's potential contribution to iodine nutrition should be considered in recommendations for dairy consumption and iodine prophylaxis.Background: Milk is a major source of iodine in human nutrition. Because both iodine content and the consumption of milk and dairy vary widely over time and populations, their contribution to iodine intake must be evaluated regularly. A recent national iodine survey found Israel's population to be mildly iodine deficient, possibly due to unmonitored changes in the food content of dietary iodine. Accounting for dairy iodine content can help guide efforts to prevent iodine deficiency. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the iodine concentration of dairy products typically consumed in the Israeli diet, and to estimate iodine intake from dairy products among Israeli adults. Methods: Iodine was analyzed in 33 selected dairy products that account for 89% of the total population's dairy intake according to the ?MABAT? Israeli National Health and Nutrition survey. Based on these data, the distribution of iodine intake from milk, dairy, and dairy-based foods in the adult population was calculated. Results: Israeli milk is rich in iodine, with a mean concentration of 22??g/100?g. However, due to low dairy consumption, the mean iodine intake from milk and dairy was only 34??g/day (median 23??g/day; range: 0?337??g/day) or 22% of the recommended daily allowance. Self-reported intake among poor, male, and Arab subgroups was even lower. Conclusions: Because Israeli milk and dairy products are iodine rich, their contribution to the population's iodine intake would increase if they were consumed in greater amounts, particularly by high-risk groups. Dairy's potential contribution to iodine nutrition should be considered in recommendations for dairy consumption and iodine prophylaxis.
Efrati Philip, D. ; Baransi, G. ; Shahar, D. R. ; Troen, A. M. Food-Aid Quality Correlates Positively With Diet Quality of Food Pantry Users in the Leket Israel Food Bank Collaborative. Frontiers in Nutrition 2018, 5 123. Publisher's VersionAbstract
{Introduction: In many affluent countries, including Israel, networks of food banks and pantries have increasing responsibility to alleviate endemic poverty and food insecurity. While they may relieve acute hunger, their long-term influence on health and well-being is poorly understood. Methods: An exploratory cross-sectional telephone survey assessed both adequacy and quality of food aid provided via food pantries in the Leket Israel food bank network, in relation to recipients’ dietary needs and health. The quality of food baskets and recipient diets were given a Healthy Portions Score (HPS) to measure compliance with Government guidelines for a “Basic Healthy Food Basket”, and a Nutrient Density Score (NDS) to capture how well the food achieved the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for vital macro and micronutrients. A total of 105 pantry users were surveyed from 16 pantries around the country. Results: The basket HPS correlated positively and highly significantly with dietary quality (individual NDS) after adjusting for gender, marital status and country of birth (standardized β= 0.22
Shtriker, M. G. ; Hahn, M. ; Taieb, E. ; Nyska, A. ; Moallem, U. ; Tirosh, O. ; Madar, Z. Fenugreek galactomannan and citrus pectin improve several parameters associated with glucose metabolism and modulate gut microbiota in mice. Nutrition 2018, 46, 134 - 142.e3. Publisher's VersionAbstract
ObjectiveGalactomannans derived from fenugreek confer known health benefits; however, there is little information regarding health benefits of citrus pectin (CP) and its association with gut microbiome metabolites. The aim of this study was to examine links between galactomannan and CP consumption, microbiota development, and glucose metabolism. Design Male C57 BL/6 J mice ages 7 to 8 wk were fed ad libitum with a normal diet or one supplemented with 15% of either galactomannan or CP. At 3 wk, an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Animals were sacrificed at 4 wk and relevant organs were harvested. Results Fiber enrichment led to reductions in weight gain, fasting glucose levels, and total serum cholesterol (P < 0.05). Compared with mice fed the normal diet, microbiota populations were altered in both fiber groups and were found to be richer in Bacteroidetes rather than Firmicutes (P < 0.05). The modification was significantly greater in galactomannan-fed than in CP-fed mice (P < 0.0001). Also, enhanced levels of the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) propionate were found in the cecal contents of CP-fed animals (P < 0.05). Protein expression levels of monocarboxylate transporter 1, which may promote transport of SCFA, were measured in the large intestines after fiber consumption. Enhanced adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation was observed in livers of galactomannan-fed mice (P < 0.05). Conclusion Consumption of diets containing soluble fibers, as used in this study, resulted in gut microbiota comprising a healthier flora, and led to positive effects on weight, glycemic control, and liver β oxidation via AMPK.
Meidan, E. ; Kolesnikov, Y. ; Tirosh, O. High Fat Diets Composed of Palm Stearin and Olive Oil Equally Exacerbate Liver Inflammatory Damage and Metabolic Stress in Mice. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 2018, 62, 1700915. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Scope People with fatty liver could be subject to acute infections such as sepsis. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of high fat diets (HFD) of olive oil and palm stearin on liver inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Methods and results C57BL/6J male mice were treated with high fat diets with different sources of oils: palm stearin and olive oil for 8 weeks followed by LPS injection. The proinflammatory effect of olive oil was also studied using gavage treatment and IP injection of LPS. Animals fed with HFDs showed an increase in body weight, elevated blood glucose levels, and fatty liver phenotype. HFDs aggravated the effect of LPS treatment to induce inflammatory response compared to low fat diet (LFD) effect. Following HFD supplementation, LPS induced hyperinsulinemia, more liver damage than in animals that consumed LFD. In addition, both gavage and long-term feeding with high lipids in the presence of LPS resulted in inhibition of gluconeogenic genes expression. Conclusion HFDs of both monounsaturated and saturated fat potentiated liver inflammation induced by LPS treatment indicate that the total amount of fat consumed is the main proinflammatory factor rather than the type of fat.
Iron-Segev, S. ; Lusweti, J. N. ; Kamau-Mbuthia, E. ; Stark, A. H. Impact of Community-Based Nutrition Education on Geophagic Behavior and Dietary Knowledge and Practices among Rural Women in Nakuru Town, Kenya: A Pilot Study. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 2018, 50, 408 - 414.e1. Publisher's VersionAbstract
ObjectiveGeophagia, the deliberate consumption of rocks, soil, or clay, is prevalent in developing countries, particularly sub-Saharan Africa. Health risks associated with this behavior include parasitosis, heavy metal poisoning, nutrient deficiencies, and poor birth outcomes. This pilot study was designed to reduce geophagic practices and improve nutrition among rural Kenyan women. Methods The researchers used snowball sampling to recruit participants (n = 135; aged 15–49 years) from low socioeconomic areas who consumed geophagic materials. Interviews were carried out before and after a nutrition intervention implemented by trained community health volunteers. Results Nutrition education focusing on geophagia significantly (P < .001) decreased the practice in 77% of participants. Postintervention interviews also demonstrated substantial improvement in understanding the concept of making half the plate vegetables using the healthy plate model. Conclusions and Implications Nutrition education can be useful for reducing geophagia (a largely ignored, unsafe dietary behavior) and enhancing nutritional knowledge in African women.